Population dynamics and life history of short-lived, iteroparous, multivoltine animals in seasonal environments. (a) Life history of small mammal cohorts around the year (winter (Wi), spring (Sp), summer (Su) and autumn (Au)) in different latitudes (after (Millar and Wille 1978)); dark grey area: non-reproductive winter season; green (light grey): reproductive summer season; blue lines (grey): overwinter (OW) animals, born in autumn; red lines (black): young-of-the year animals (YY), born in spring; * = birth, M = maturation, ┼ = death. (b) Typical, annual population dynamic; (c) age distribution per season. red (black): YY, blue (grey): OW.
Eccard and Herde BMC Ecology 2013 13:43 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-13-43