Expression levels show similar directionality for 20 brain genes commonly affected by Nosema and Varroa parasites. For the total number of genes changed by parasitism by Varroa (N = 455 genes) or Nosema (N = 57 genes), a statistically significant number of genes occur in both lists (N = 21) with 20 genes expressed in the same direction (Exact hypergeometric probability test: P < 0.0001). Color scale for the heatmap (red to green) indicates log2 transcription ratios where red color indicates underexpression of the gene in the parasitized bee and green color indicates overexpression. For each gene, the accession number and annotation are indicated.
McDonnell et al. BMC Ecology 2013 13:25 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-13-25