Figure 3.

Parasitism did not affect the levels of 10-HDA levels in (A) Nosema- or (B) Varroa-parasitized bees. The 10-HDA levels did not differ between Nosema-infected and control bees at day 5 and 10 but increase with age in colony 120 and 231 (except for control) (Kruskall-Wallis tests: Colony 98: H = 4.53, P = 0.2; Colony 120: H = 19.32, P < 0.001; Colony 231: H = 8.57, P = 0.035; * denotes significant differences after Conover-Iman post-hoc tests, P < 0.05). Varroa did not modify the 10-HDA levels (Mann–Whitney tests: Colony 98: P = 0.38, Colony 120: P = 0.68; Colony 231: P = 0.058).

McDonnell et al. BMC Ecology 2013 13:25   doi:10.1186/1472-6785-13-25
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