Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Ecto- and endoparasite induce similar chemical and brain neurogenomic responses in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

Cynthia M McDonnell1*, Cédric Alaux1, Hugues Parrinello2, Jean-Pierre Desvignes2, Didier Crauser1, Emma Durbesson1, Dominique Beslay1 and Yves Le Conte1

Author Affiliations

1 INRA, UR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site Agroparc, Domaine Saint-Paul, Avignon, Cedex 9, 84914, France

2 Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, UMR 5203 CNRS, U661 INSERM, Universités Montpellier 1 & 2, Montpellier Cedex 05, 34094, France

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BMC Ecology 2013, 13:25  doi:10.1186/1472-6785-13-25

Published: 17 July 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1: Table S1:

Relative proportion of each CHC compound in control and Nosema or Varroa parasitized bees. Changes in proportion induced by parasitism were determined with Mann–Whitney U tests (P < 0.05 are in bold).

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Additional file 2: Table S2S2:

Percentage of correct assignments of Nosema-infected and control bees based on their cuticular hydrocarbons profiles. In the treatment column, 5 and 10 indicate the age of the bees. The last four columns show the number of bees classified in the different group treatment by the discriminant analysis. The experiment was repeated on bees from 3 different colonies. Table S3 Percentage of correct assignments of Varroa-infested and control bees based on their cuticular hydrocarbons profiles. The last six columns show the number of bees classified in the different group treatment by the discriminant analysis. The numbers 98, 120 and 231 indicate the colony origin of the bees.

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Additional file 3: Table S4:

Summary of DGE sequencing results. The analysis was performed on two colonies.

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Additional file 4: Table S5:

Lists of genes affected in the bee brain by Nosema or Varroa parasitism. Corresponding honey bee gene, Drosophila ortholog and genes also up- or downregulated in the brain of nurses and foragers are shown.

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Additional file 5: Table S6:

Effects of Nosema and Varroa parasites on the prevalance of Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa Destructor Virus levels in the bee brain. Comparisons of viral titers (A) Nosema vs Control, (B) Varroa vs Control and (C) Varroa vs Nosema using Cox-Reid method for estimating dispersion and Generalized Linear Model (GLM) for statistical test.

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