Quadrupedal MFH proxies used in this study. Shoulder height (calculated as the combined lengths of the humerus, radius, and metacarpal III) is used to approximate the MFHs of ankylosaurs (A), ceratopsids (B), and other small, quadrupedal forms. Hip height (calculated as the combined lengths of the femur, tibia/fibula, and metatarsal III) is used to approximate the quadrupedal MFHs of hadrosaurids (C). Dashed lines indicate the approximate quadrupedal MFH. Image (B) provided by G. Danis (used with permission).
Mallon et al. BMC Ecology 2013 13:14 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-13-14