Predicted lambda of rock and white-tailed ptarmigan populations in relation to the frequency of severe years. Models were run with three projection matrices representing rates from 2004–2006. Solid circles refer to calculations of juvenile survival as a proportion of adult survival. Open circles refer to juvenile survival assuming a constant rate of 0.27. Values for all parameters are shown in Table 3.
Wilson and Martin BMC Ecology 2012 12:9 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-12-9