Male smearing and worker attacks in male-male fights of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. A) The frequency of observed male smearing performed by the later winner of the fight was independent of the age of the two males. Besmearing activity by the later loser increased with the age of the young male. B) Worker attacks towards the later loser of the fight did not vary with the age of the two opponents. The occurrence of worker biting against the later winner of the fight increased with the age of the young male. Bars represent median values and whiskers the 25% and 75% quartiles. Small italic letters indicate significance groups for significant overall differences (black bars in A and white bars in B).
Cremer et al. BMC Ecology 2012 12:7 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-12-7