Figure 1.

Fight characteristics depending on the age of ergatoid males of the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. A) Fights were initiated more frequently by the older male when their opponent had eclosed on the day of fighting (old-d0) or was one day old (old-d1) than when the young male was two days old (old-d2). B) Biting was performed only by the attacking male when the opponent was less than one day old (old-d0), whereas both males attacked when the young male was older (old-d1 and old-d2). C) Fights were won exclusively by the older male when the rival was younger than two days (old-d0 and old-d1), yet in interactions between an old and a two-day old male, both males had similar chances of winning. Some fights resulted in the death of both males. Small italic letters indicate significance groups of the white/grey bars.

Cremer et al. BMC Ecology 2012 12:7   doi:10.1186/1472-6785-12-7
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