Spatial pattern analysis of non-palm saplings compared to palm trees and Myristicaceae trees. Results of bivariate point pattern analyses between mature (A, > 15 cm dbh) or immature (B, non-fruiting, 10-15 cm dbh) large arborescent palms, and non-palm saplings (1-2 cm dbh), and female (C, fruiting) or male (D, non-fruiting) Myristicaceae and non-palm saplings in the 25 ha Yasuní FDP. In each case we randomised the focal individuals (palms or Myristicaceae) with a heterogeneous Poisson distribution (20 m). Each pane shows the O-ring statistic (circles, O12(r)), giving the local neighborhood density of the pattern at scale r. Simulation envelopes (dashed lines) are the 5th highest and lowest O(r) of 199 randomizations of the pattern over the study region. Points lying outside of the confidence envelope (filled circles) indicate significant attraction (above) or repulsion (below) of saplings relative to palms.
Queenborough et al. BMC Ecology 2012 12:3 doi:10.1186/1472-6785-12-3