Table 2

False-positive assignments at the genus level

Query Sequence

Assignment

Notes


Eupyrrhoglossum sagra (2)

Aellopos (5)

Aellopos and Eupyrrhoglossum are most likely a sister pair [17]. Eupyrrhoglossum differs from Aellopos only in forewing veins Rs3 and Rs4 remaining separate apically and the phallus lacking spines on the right side (Kitching, personal communication).


Madoryx plutonius (4)

Pseudosphinx (1)

Pseudosphinx was close to Madoryx on the Kawahara et al. [17] phylogeny and both genera belong to the same tribe (Dilophonotini). Pseudosphinx is very close to Isognathus; indeed, it could be argued it is just an oversized Isognathus without yellow in the hindwing (Kitching, personal communication).


Madoryx oiclus (4)

Hemeroplanes (4)

Hemeroplanes was close to Madoryx on the Kawahara et al. [17] phylogeny and are considered a sister pair (Kitching, personal communication).


Manduca albiplaga (58)

Apocalypsis (1)

Apocalypsis and M. albiplaga were not sampled by Kawahara et al. [17], however, Apocalypsis was mentioned as an oriental genus expected to fall near the base of the Acherontini/Sphingini clade which included a paraphyletic Manduca.


Neococytius cluentius (1)

Amphimoea (1)

Amphimoea was not sampled by Kawahara et al. [17] but was placed by Kitching [49] as the sister to Neococytius + Cocytius.


Pachylia darceta (3)

Pachylioides (1)

Pachylioides and Pachylia were not closely related on the Kawahara et al. [17] phylogeny, however, Rothschild and Jordan [50] noted a closer morphological similarity of darceta to resumens, both then being in Pachylia, than to the other two Pachylia, ficus and syces. Conversely, the larvae (e.g. direction of stripes) suggests a closer link between darceta and ficus + syces (Kitching, personal communication).


Pachylia ficus (3)

Kloneus (1)

P. ficus and Kloneus were sister taxa on the Kawahara et al. [17] phylogeny, and Kloneus is considered just a Pachylia with a crenulated forewing outer edge (Kitching, personal communication).


Pachylia syces (3)

Phylloxiphia (10)

Phylloxiphia, an African genus not sampled by Kawahara et al. [17], is part of the Clanis group of Smerinthinae and a long way removed from P. syces (Kitching, personal communication).


Pachylioides resumens (1)

Pachylia (3)

Pachylioides and Pachylia were not closely related on the Kawahara et al. [17] phylogeny, but were associated by Kitching and Cadiou [16].


Phryxus caicus (1)

Erinnyis (10

Not included by Kawahara et al. [17] but linked by Kitching and Cadiou [16] with Phryxus considered just a highly divergent Erinnyis.


Pseudosphinx tetrio (1)

Madoryx (4)

Pseudosphinx and Madoryx were reciprocally mis-assigned. See above.


Xylophanes godmani (80)

Theretra (38)

X.godmani was not sampled by Kawahara et al. [17] but Xylophanes and Theretra are members of the same tribe (Choericampina) and were suggested to be closely related by Hunsdoefer et al. [51] based on their mtDNA phylogeny.


Xylophanes turbata (80)

Chaerocina (3)

X. turbata was not sampled by Kawahara et al. [17], but the unexpected placement of Chaerocina, close to Xylophanes, was observed on their phylogeny.


Species and genus names are followed by a number in brackets which gives the number of species in the genus in the 100% reference library, e.g. Neococytius cluentius (1) is the sole member of Neococytius in the 100% reference library.

Wilson et al. BMC Ecology 2011 11:18   doi:10.1186/1472-6785-11-18

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