Molecular phylogeny of the Terebridae. Five clades are defined Pellifronia, Acus, Terebra, Hastula, and Myurella (Clades A to E). Two clades have lost the venom apparatus: Acus (clade B) and Myurella (clade E), corresponding to two independent losses (red stars). Two lineages are found in the Panamic Eastern Pacific, black arrows correspond to Acus strigata and Terebra arygosia, the others in the Western Pacific. The tree was constructed using Bayesian and likelihood analyzes based on COI, 12S and 16S mitochondrial genes, see [11,12] for full details on the molecular phylogeny. The molecular phylogeny of the Terebridae effectively highlights the terebrid lineages that have a venom apparatus (Pellifronia, Terebra, Hastula), therefore using peptide toxins to subdue prey, and those that do not have a venom apparatus (Acus, Myurella), thus not using toxins to hunt.
Puillandre and Holford BMC Chemical Biology 2010 10:7 doi:10.1186/1472-6769-10-7