MyD88-dependent and independent pathways of Toll-Like Receptors are engaged in biological activity of Triptolide in ligand-stimulated macrophages
- Equal contributors
1 Cancer and Cell Biology Department, University of Cincinnati, OH 45219, USA
2 Nutrigenomics Program, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
3 Biotech Center, Rutgers University, 59 Dudley Rd, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
BMC Chemical Biology 2010, 10:3 doi:10.1186/1472-6769-10-3Published: 12 April 2010
Triptolide is a diterpene triepoxide from the Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., with known anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and anti-cancer properties.
Here we report the expression profile of immune signaling genes modulated by triptolide in LPS induced mouse macrophages. In an array study triptolide treatment modulated expression of 22.5% of one hundred and ninety five immune signaling genes that included Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs elicit immune responses through their coupling with intracellular adaptor molecules, MyD88 and TRIF. Although it is known that triptolide inhibits NFκB activation and other signaling pathways downstream of TLRs, involvement of TLR cascade in triptolide activity was not reported. In this study, we show that triptolide suppresses expression of proinflammatory downstream effectors induced specifically by different TLR agonists. Also, the suppressive effect of triptolide on TLR-induced NFκB activation was observed when either MyD88 or TRIF was knocked out, confirming that both MyD88 and TRIF mediated NFκB activation may be inhibited by triptolide. Within the TLR cascade triptolide downregulates TLR4 and TRIF proteins.
This study reveals involvement of TLR signaling in triptolide activity and further increases understanding of how triptolide activity may downregulate NFκB activation during inflammatory conditions.