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Open Access Research article

Inflammation and enhanced nociceptive responses to bladder distension produced by intravesical zymosan in the rat

Alan Randich1, Tyler Uzzell2, Ronda Cannon2 and Timothy J Ness2*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Al, 35294, USA

2 Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Al, 35294, USA

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BMC Urology 2006, 6:2  doi:10.1186/1471-2490-6-2

Published: 9 February 2006

Abstract

Background

Mycotic infections of the bladder produce pain and inflammatory changes. The present study examined the inflammatory and nociceptive effects of the yeast cell wall component, zymosan, when admininstered into the urinary bladder in order to characterize this form of bladder sensitization.

Methods

Parametric analyses of the time-course (0–48 hr) and concentration (0–2% solutions) variables associated with intravesical zymosan-induced bladder inflammation were performed in female rats. Plasma extravasation of Evan's Blue dye was used as a measure of tissue inflammation. Cardiovascular and visceromotor responses to urinary bladder distension were used as measures of nociception.

Results

Zymosan-induced bladder inflammation, as indexed by plasma extravasation of Evan's Blue, was significantly greater in rats treated with either 1 or 2% solutions as compared to either 0.1 or 0.5% zymosan solutions. In time-course studies (1 – 48 hr post-treatment), 1% zymosan-induced inflammation progressively increased with time following administration, was greatest at 24 hr and began to normalize by 48 hr. In the studies of inflammation-induced changes in nociception, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and visceromotor responses to graded distension of the urinary bladder were significantly increased relative to controls 24 hr after zymosan administration.

Conclusion

These studies provide important time-course and solution concentration parameters for studies of zymosan-induced inflammation of the bladder and suggest utility of this model for the study of bladder-related pain.