Photograph of bladder biopsy (H-5554/99): This 28-year old male developed C-4 complete tetraplegia in a car accident four years ago. He has been on suprapubic catheter drainage for four years. He developed a stone in urinary bladder. Histology shows the bladder mucosa is covered almost entirely by mature, metaplastic squamous epithelium, with only a small amount of transitional epithelium remaining. The squamous epithelium is predominantly non-keratinising. But there are small foci of keratinisation. There is mild dysplasia as well.
Vaidyanathan et al. BMC Urology 2002 2:5 doi:10.1186/1471-2490-2-5