Table 4

Retrospective studies of frequency of complications in studies of child circumcision undertaken by medical providers

Author

Country

Years

Setting

N

Age

Method used

Indication

Frequency of adverse eventsa

Frequency of serious adverse eventsb


Ahmed [7]

Nigeria

1981-1995

Hospital

1563

Mean 4 years

-

Routine

0.3%

-


Atikeler [54]

Turkey

1999-2002

Hospital

782

Mean 6 years

-

Medical indication or religious reasons

2.6%

0%


Cathcart [74]

UK

1997-2004

Hospital

66519

0-15 years

-

98% Medical

1.2%

0%


Lazarus [53]

South Africa

1999-2005

Hospital

95

'boys'

-

Medical or religious

5.1%

2.5%


Leitch [69]

Australia

1960s

Hospital

200

Mean 2 years

-

71% Medical

29% Cultural

11%

0%


Millar [75]

South Africa

1985-1987

Hospital

129

3 months to 10 years

Plastibell

19 revisions

12%

-


Ozdemir [46]

Turkey

1990s

Hospital

600

8 days to puberty

Forceps guided?

Routine

1.7%

0%


Peng [76]

China

2005-2007

Hospital

160

5-12 years

Shenghu disposable device

Mainly medical

Complications whilst wearing device : 17.5%c

Complications after removal of device : 0.6%

0.6%


Rizvi [64]

Pakistan

1981-1991

Hospital

3096

'children'

-

-

1.6%

-


Wiswell [18]

USA

1985-1992

Hospital

476

Mean 3 years

Freehand or sleeve

Cultural (67%)

Medical (33%)

1.7%

0.2%


Yegane [77]

Iran

2002

Community

1766

71% after 2 years of age

-

-

4.6% overall (late complications)

2.8% Urologists/surgeons

6.1% GPs/pediatricians

9.1% Paramedics

0%


a Cases of minor bleeding stopped with simple pressure or 'conservative management' and excessive foreskin/inadequate circumcision are not included

b Includes complications defined as 'serious' or 'severe' by authors, or with long-term or life-threatening sequalae (partial amputation of glans, urethral laceration, need for re-surgery or plastic surgery)

c Seventy cases of swelling pain from nocturnal erection excluded

Weiss et al. BMC Urology 2010 10:2   doi:10.1186/1471-2490-10-2

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