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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Predictors of surgical site infections among patients undergoing major surgery at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania

Brian Mawalla1, Stephen E Mshana2*, Phillipo L Chalya1, Can Imirzalioglu3 and William Mahalu1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Surgery Weill Bugando University College of Health Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania

2 Department of Microbiology/Immunology Weill Bugando University College of Health Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania

3 Institute of Medical Microbiology, Giessen, Germany

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BMC Surgery 2011, 11:21  doi:10.1186/1471-2482-11-21

Published: 31 August 2011

Abstract

Background

Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a major source of morbidity and mortality in developing countries despite recent advances in aseptic techniques. There is no baseline information regarding SSI in our setting therefore it was necessary to conduct this study to establish the prevalence, pattern and predictors of surgical site infection at Bugando Medical Centre Mwanza (BMC), Tanzania.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional prospective study involving all patients who underwent major surgery in surgical wards between July 2009 and March 2010. After informed written consent for the study and HIV testing, all patients who met inclusion criteria were consecutively enrolled into the study. Pre-operative, intra-operative and post operative data were collected using standardized data collection form. Wound specimens were collected and processed as per standard operative procedures; and susceptibility testing was done using disc diffusion technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 15 and STATA.

Results

Surgical site infection (SSI) was detected in 65 (26.0%) patients, of whom 56 (86.2%) and 9 (13.8%) had superficial and deep SSI respectively. Among 65 patients with clinical SSI, 56(86.2%) had positive aerobic culture. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant organism 16/56 (28.6%); of which 3/16 (18.8%) were MRSA. This was followed by Escherichia coli 14/56 (25%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10/56 (17.9%). Among the Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates 9(64.3%) and 8(80%) were ESBL producers respectively. A total of 37/250 (14.8%) patients were HIV positive with a mean CD4 count of 296 cells/ml. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of pre-morbid illness (OR = 6.1), use of drain (OR = 15.3), use of iodine alone in skin preparation (OR = 17.6), duration of operation ≥ 3 hours (OR = 3.2) and cigarette smoking (OR = 9.6) significantly predicted surgical site infection (SSI)

Conclusion

SSI is common among patients admitted in surgical wards at BMC and pre-morbid illness, use of drain, iodine alone in skin preparation, prolonged duration of the operation and cigarette smoking were found to predict SSI. Prevention strategies focusing on factors associated with SSI is necessary in order to reduce the rate of SSI in our setting.