Table 1

Descriptive information for the sample

    Positive

    Neutral

    Negative

    Total Sample

    p


Sex: Male:

5

4

7

16

0.55

Female:

15

16

13

44

Age in years (sd)

22.95 (2.06)

23.10 (3.49)

23.20 (3.66)

23.08 (3.10)

0.97

Race: Caucasian:

18

14

16

48

0.23

African

American:

1

1

1

3

Other:

1

5

3

9

Education (years (sd))

16.20 (1.32)

16.21 (1.51)

16.03 (1.26)

16.14 (1.35)

0.89

History of LBP: Yes:

5

3

2

10

0.70

No:

14

15

17

46

Missing:

1

2

1

4

Pain Threshold

Temperature (sd)

42.42 (5.25)

42.99 (2.89)

41.98 (3.12)

42.46 (3.86)

0.72

NRS Rating (sd)

13.89 (11.72)

19.63 (20.33)

17.40 (18.16)

16.97 (17.01)

0.57

Baseline Pain Testing

Lower Extremity NRS (sd)

34.92 (23.24)

34.01 (28.11)

27.62 (20.93)

32.10 (24.02)

0.59

Low Back NRS (sd)

46.22 (24.08)

52.99 (27.05)

43.86 (26.18)

47.76 (25.64)

0.52

    Psychological Questionnaires

PCS (sd)

15.15 (9.15)

17.30 (9.53)

14.75 (8.43)

15.73 (8.96)

0.63

FPQ (sd)

72.25 (13.47)

81.1 (19.43)

76.65 (14.81)

76.67 (16.24)

0.23

Anxiety VAS (sd)

23.20 (17.60)

21.89 (23.96)

24.30 (19.76)

23.15 (20.21)

0.94


Sample demographic, baseline pain perception, and psychological characteristics. Variables were all obtained prior to randomization. Significance set at p ≤ 0.05. Temperature measures are in degrees Celsius. Pain ratings obtained through 0 to 100 numeric rating scale (NRS). PCS = Pain Catastrophizing Scale. FPQ = Fear of Pain Questionnaire. VAS = Visual Analog Scale.

Bialosky et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008 9:19   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-19

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