Table 3

Effects of APT, CBT and CT as compared with WL

Dependent variable

WL mean ± SD

APT mean difference (95% CI)†

CBT mean difference (95% CI)†

CT mean difference (95% CI)†


RDQ††

13.88 ± 4.78

-2.40 (-4.14 to -0.65)**

-3.05 (-4.80 to -1.30)**

-2.56 (-4.27 to -0.85)**

Main complaints††

74.25 ± 14.7

-11.19 (-20.07 to -2.31)*

-16.36 (-25.13 to -7.60)**

-17.84 (-26.54 to -9.14)**

Current pain††

53.35 ± 22.6

-8.68 (-16.87 to -0.48)*

-14.76 (-23.00 to -6.52)**

-8.23 (-16.37 to -0.10)*

PRI-T††

17.28 ± 10.48

0.90 (-2.94 to 4.74)

-2.04 (-5.91 to 1.83)

-0.33 (-4.14 to 3.48)

BDI

9.42 ± 7.81

-2.09 (-3.86 to -0.32)*

-1.65 (-3.42 to 0.12)

0.04 (-1.71 to 1.79)

Global improvement††

3.78 ± 0.91

0.47 (-0.08 to 1.09)

0.90 (0.36 to 1.44)**

0.70 (0.17 to 1.24)*

Satisfaction$

10th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 9)

45.65 ± 25.30

32.38 (14.19 to 50.57)**

18.34 (0.51 to 36.16)*

19.33 (2.01 to 36.65)*

50th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 14)

46.67 ± 25.30

19.30 (6.74 to 31.88)**

22.68 (10.10 to 35.27)**

23.57 (11.28 to 35.86)**

90th percentile of baseline RDQ (= 19)

47.69 ± 25.30

6.23 (-12.04 to 24.50)

27.03 (8.37 to 45.69)**

27.81 (9.54 to 46.08)**

Walking (m)††

386.60 ± 86.62

27.85 (5.35 to 50.34)*

12.82 (-9.75 to 35.40)

35.65 (13.85 to 57.45)**

Inversion fast walking (1/sec)

0.10 ± 0.02

0.005 (-0.002 to 0.012)

0.009 (0.002 to 0.016)*

0.008 (0.001 to 0.015)*

Inversion sit to stand (1/sec)

0.06 ± 0.02

0.007 (0.001 to 0.013)*

0.003 (-0.003 to 0.010)

0.007 (0.001 to 0.014)*

Loaded forward reach (cm)††

59.07 ± 12.55

1.30 (-4.40 to 7.00)

1.19 (-4.58 to 6.96)

0.98 (-4.54 to 6.51)

Stair climbing (stairs)

80.76 ± 24.80

7.83 (0.67 to 14.98)*

3.58 (-3.53 to 10.69)

9.25 (2.28 to 16.21)*

Lifting (stages)††

4.13 ± 2.56

0.96 (0.06 to 1.85)*

0.48 (-0.41 to 1.37)

0.68 (-0.16 to 1.52)


† Values are the mean difference between this group and the WL. The WL score is the score at post-treatment.

The mean differences and confidence intervals (CIs) and corresponding p-values were estimated adjusting for age, gender, center of treatment, baseline score of outcome measure, duration of functional limitations.

†† Additional correction for relevant prognostic co-variates: RDQ – work status and TSK; Main complaints/Lifting – TSK; Current pain/PRI-T – work status; Global improvement/loaded forward reach – current pain; Walking – radiation and TSK.

$ Data presented for different strata for baseline RDQ, mean and SD for WL are estimated by use of regression model. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01.

APT = active physical treatment; CBT = cognitive-behavioural treatment; CT = combination treatment; WL = waiting list; RDQ = Roland Disability Questionnaire; PRI-T = Pain Rating Index Total score; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory.

Smeets et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006 7:5   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-7-5

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