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Open Access Research article

Prevalence and factors associated with low bone mineral density in Saudi women: a community based survey

AlJohara M AlQuaiz12, Ambreen Kazi1*, Salwa Tayel2, Shaffi Ahamed Shaikh2, Abdullah Al-Sharif3, Saleh Othman4, Fawzia Habib5, Mona Fouda16 and Riad Sulaimani6

Author Affiliations

1 Princess Nora Bent Abdallah Women Health Research Chair, College of Medicine, King Saud University, PO Box 231831, Riyadh 11321, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2 Department of Family & Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3 Council of Co-operative Health Insurance, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4 Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

5 Departement of Obstetrics & Gynecology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al Medina, Al Munawara, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

6 Department of Medicine-Endocrinology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 12371, Saudi Arabia

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BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014, 15:5  doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-5

Published: 8 January 2014

Abstract

Background

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a public health issue in Saudi Arabia. This study measured the prevalence and factors associated with low BMD in Saudi women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Methods

A cross sectional study using two stage cluster sampling technique was conducted in Riyadh, 2009. Thirty clusters, each comprising of 300 houses were randomly chosen and from each cluster 38ā€“40 households were selected to identify 1150 women of >40 years. Women were invited to primary health care center for filling of self-administered questionnaire (nā€‰=ā€‰1069) comprising of sociodemographic, health, diet and physical activity variables. 1008 women underwent screening for low BMD using the quantitative ultrasound technique. 535 (53%) women with positive screening test were referred to King Khalid Hospital for Dual X-ray Energy absorptiometry (DXA).

Results

362 women underwent DXA and 212 (39.6%) were screened low BMD either at lumbar spine or femur neck. Mean age of women was 55.26(Ā±8.84) years. Multivariate logistic analysis found; being aged 61 to 70 years (OR 2.75, 95% CI: 1.32-1.48), no literacy (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.44 - 6.12) or primary education (OR 4.12, 95% CI:2.05-8.29), history of fractures (OR 2.20, 95% CI:1.03- 4.69) and not drinking laban(diluted yogurt) (OR 2.81, 95% CI:1.47- 5.37) significantly associated with low BMD.

Conclusions

Women with low level of education, who do not drink laban and had history of fractures were at high risk of low BMD.

Keywords:
Low bone mineral density; Women; Dietary factors