Open Access Research article

Fear of movement/(Re)injury in low back pain: confirmatory validation of a German version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia

Adina Carmen Rusu12, Nina Kreddig1, Dirk Hallner1, Janina Hülsebusch1 and Monika I Hasenbring1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, Faculty of Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstr 150, Bochum 44780, Germany

2 Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK

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BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014, 15:280  doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-280

Published: 19 August 2014



The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), an instrument for measuring fear of movement/(re)injury, has been confirmed as an important predictor for the persistence of pain-related disability. The aims of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of a German version of the TSK (TSK-GV), examining aspects of content validity with special focus on fear-avoidance and endurance, and to confirm criterion-related validity in patients with low back pain (LBP).


A total of 191 patients with LBP were included in this study. Several models with different factor structures from published studies were compared in a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistencies of the TSK-GV and its subscales were examined, and correlations with related self-report measures were calculated.


The internal consistency of the TSK-GV was α = 0.73. A two-factor model with 11 items was found to be the best fit for our data. The two factors were labelled Somatic Focus (SF) and Activity Avoidance (AA). The total score, SF and AA revealed moderate to high correlations with other fear-avoidance variables.


The TSK-GV is a reliable and valid measure for assessing the fear of movement/(re)injury.

Fear of pain; Fear of (re)injury; Fear of movement; Validation; TSK; Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia; Assessment