Table 2

Prescription medications use in patients with a tibia shaft fracture by nonunion status
Prescription Medications All tibia fractures (N = 853) With Nonunion (N = 99) Without Nonunion (N = 754) P values
Any Pain Medication
Patients on therapy, n (%) 795 (93.2%) 98 (99.0%) 697 (92.4%) 0.009
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) N/A N/A N/A X
Strong Opioids
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 665 (78.0%) 89 (89.9%) 576 (76.4%) 0.002
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 3.2 (5.5) 5.4 (6.8) 2.8 (5.2) < 0.001
Prescription NSAIDs
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 301 (35.3%) 47 (47.5%) 254 (33.7%) 0.007
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 3.6 (4.9) 4.3 (6.0) 3.5 (4.7) 0.67
Weak Opiods
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 247 (29.0%) 34 (34.3%) 213 (28.2%) 0.21
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 2 (3.5) 2.2 (3.5) 2.0 (3.5) 0.13
Benzodiazepines
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 235 (27.5%) 36 (36.4%) 199 (26.4%) 0.037
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 7.2 (7.6) 7.4 (8.5) 7.1 (7.4) 0.68
Antidepressants: SSRI
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 220 (25.8%) 30 (30.3%) 190 (25.2%) 0.28
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 11.6 (7.2) 8.1 (6.6) 12.1 (7.1) 0.003
Corticosteroids
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 201 (23.6%) 27 (27.3%) 174 (23.1%) 0.36
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 1.9 (4.1) 2.3 (4.4) 1.9 (4.1) 0.21
Non-Benzodiazepines Sedative/Hypnotics
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 197 (23.1%) 29 (29.3%) 168 (22.3%) 0.12
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 4.4 (5.7) 3.8 (3.9) 4.5 (6)
Muscle Relaxants
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 174 (20.4%) 25 (25.3%) 149 (19.8%) 0.2
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 3.9 (6) 5.0 (6.5) 3.7 (6.0) 0.061
Inject Corticosteroid
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 168 (19.7%) 28 (28.3%) 140 (18.6%) 0.022
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.75
Anticonvulsant/Antiepileptic
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 128 (15.0%) 23 (23.2%) 105 (13.9%) 0.015
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 8.3 (7.1) 9.1 (7.6) 8.1 (7.0) 0.59
Antidepressants: Other
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 92 (10.8%) 13 (13.1%) 79 (10.5%) 0.42
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 9.7 (8.0) 8.4 (7.7) 10.0 (8.1) 0.76
Antidepressants: SNRI
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 77 (9.0%) 19 (19.2%) 58 (7.7%) < 0.001
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 10 (7.3) 12.0 (7.8) 9.3 (7.0) 0.22
Antidepressants: TCAs
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 71 (8.3%) 11 (11.1%) 60 (8.0%) 0.29
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 8.5 (7.7) 8.4 (9.1) 8.5 (7.5) 0.6
COX-2 Inhibitors
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 62 (7.3%) 10 (10.1%) 52 (6.9%) 0.25
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 7.2 (7.2) 6.7 (8.0) 7.3 (7.2) 0.6
Analgesics/Antipyretics, NEC
· Patients on therapy, n (%) 13 (1.5%) 1 (1.0%) 12 (1.6%) 1.0
· Average therapy duration, months (SD) 1.3 (2.7) 2 (MISS) 1.3 (2.8) 0.28

Notes: † P-value is based on the T-test, ‡ P-value is based on the Wilcoxon test; SD – standard deviation; NSAID - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SSRI - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; SNRI - Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors; TCA - Tricyclic antidepressants; NEC – not elsewhere classified.

Antonova et al.

Antonova et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:42   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-42

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