Table 1

Clinical features of participants with and without tophi
Variable No tophi (n = 243) Tophi (n = 47) p
Age, years 57.8 (14.5) 64.1 (14.0) 0.006
Male sex, n (%) 170 (70.0%) 33 (70%) 1.0
Ethnicity
  Caucasian/other, n (%) 182 (74.8%) 36 (77%) 1.0
  Maori or pacific, n (%) 61 (25.2%) 11 (23%) 1.0
Disease duration, years 5.1 (3.8) 5.8 (3.2) 0.22
Cardiovascular events, n (%) 76 (31.3%) 20 (43%) 0.18
Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 29 (12%) 8 (17%) 0.34
Hypertension, n (%) 98 (40.3%) 18 (38%) 0.87
Kidney stones, n (%) 17 (7.0%) 5 (11%) 0.37
Diuretic use, n (%) 61 (25.1%) 22 (47%) 0.004
Colchicine use 70 (28.8%) 21 (45%) 0.039
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use 50 (20.5%) 8 (17%) 0.79
Allopurinol use, n (%) 147 (60.5%) 26 (55%) 0.52
Allopurinol dose, mg/day 215 (92) 213 (116) 0.93
Corticosteroid use, n (%) 29 (11.9%) 10 (21%) 0.10
Low dose aspirin use, n (%) 62 (25.5%) 15 (32%) 0.37
Adherence score* 40.9 (6.2) 40.9 (5.9) 1.0
Body mass index, kg/m2 31.3 (6.9) 30.0 (6.5) 0.23
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 138 (22) 139 (23) 0.68
Creatinine clearance, mL/min 72.1 (28.6) 56.3 (27.4) 0.001
C-reactive protein, mg/L 5.3 (11.9) 8.0 (15.0) 0.17
Serum urate, mmol/L 0.40 (0.13) 0.43 (0.11) 0.25
Gout flare frequency, per 3 months 1.8 (5.9) 5.4 (18.2) 0.01
Tophus count 0 (0) 3.1 (3.4) <0.001
Tender joint count (/68) 1.6 (3.9) 5.8 (8.7) <0.001
Swollen joint count (/66) 0.6 (1.8) 3.3 (7.1) <0.001
HAQ-II 0.43 (0.55) 0.77 (0.73) 0.001
Patient global assessment, mm 21.9 (23.1) 33.7 (26.4) 0.002
Pain visual analogue scale, mm 15.9 (24.2) 24.9 (25.9) 0.021

*for those on urate-lowering therapy.

Unless specified otherwise, data are presented as mean (SD).

Dalbeth et al.

Dalbeth et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:363   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-363

Open Data