Table 3

Characterization of the three clusters of CLBP patients (n = 634)
Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3
n = 179 n = 200 n = 255
(28.2%) (31.5%) (40.2%)
Age [years: mean (SD)] 68.2 (8.6) 57.8 (13.1) 46.8 (10.3)
Persons at household [mean (SD)] 2.1 (0.9) 2.2 (0.1) 2.9 (1.2)
Employment status [no. (%)]
- Working (full or part-time) 12 (6.8) 88 (44.2) 222 (87.1)
Reasons for not working [no. (%)]
- Keeping house 11 (6.7) 20 (17.7) 19 (57.9)
- Unemployed# 6 (3.7) 10 (8.8) 11 (33.3)
- Retired 146 (89.6) 82 (72.6) 1 (3.0)
- Other 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 2 (6.1)
Days on sick leave of the employed participants [mean (SD)] 81.4 (14.4) 20.9 (26.7) 4.8 (8.2)
Degree of disability [no. (%)]
- Yes 96 (58.2) 113 (59.2) 46 (18.6)
Number of pain areas [mean (SD)] 3.9 (2.3) 4.4 (2.2) 3.7 (2.2)
Index of the graded chronic pain (von Korff) [no (%)]
- 0 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
- 1 23 (14.5) 15 (8.1) 44 (18.0)
- 2 32 (20.1) 24 (13.0) 91 (37.1)
- 3 51 (32.1) 58 (31.4) 69 (28.2)
- 4 53 (33.3) 88 (47.6) 41 (16.7)
Symptom check-list-90-R (Somatization) [mean (SD)]
11.1 (6.9) 14.4 (7.2) 8.8 (5.0)
Self-administered comorbidity questionnaire (SACQ) [no (%)]
- Psychological comorbidities* 23 (19.5) 67 (44.4) 35 (15.2)
- Musculoskeletal comorbidities** 89 (75.4) 87 (57.6) 56 (24.3)
- Other comorbidities*** 107 (90.7) 117 (77.5) 125 (54.3)
Brief resilience scale (RS-11) [mean (SD)] 61.3 (11.9) 47.3 (13.6) 63.2 (8.7)
Hospital anxiety and depression (HADS) [mean (SD)]
- Anxiety 6.6 (3.4) 10.5 (4.1) 7.0 (3.3)
- Depression 7.4 (2.6) 10.9 (2.9) 6.8 (2.4)
Coping resources of back pain (FBR) [mean (SD)]
- Emotional social support 13.9 (5.0) 6.5 (4.6) 11.6 (5.2)
- Practical help 13.5 (5.5) 7.5 (4.8) 13.2 (5.1)
- Exercise and relaxation 14.2 (4.4) 8.2 (4.2) 13.1 (4.7)
- Hobby and enjoyment 16.0 (3.6) 8.0 (4.4) 14.7 (4.0)
- Cognitive strategies 15.7 (3.9) 7.8 (4.3) 14.1 (4.5)
- Knowledge 7.0 (2.6) 4.1 (2.5) 6.9 (2.4)
- Spirituality 6.2 (3.3) 2.5 (2.8) 3.8 (3.5)
Gut feeling: Will the pain get away? [no (%)]
- Yes 90 (50.3) 73 (36.5) 40 (15.7)
Number of different therapeutic strategies [mean (SD)] 7.1 (3.8) 6.6 (3.9) 5.0 (3.4)
Number of consultations because of back pain / 6 months [mean (SD)] 5.7 (5.9) 6.1 (7.2) 3.6 (4.2)
Number of operations because of back pain [mean (SD)] 0.3 (0.8) 0.5 (1.4) 0.1 (0.3)

*Participants with the comorbidities depression and/or other psychiatric diseases.

**Participants with the comorbidities degenerative arthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis and/or osteoporosis.

***Participants with the comorbidities high blood pressure and/or heart diseases and/or asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or ulcer/stomach diseases and/or diabetes and/or high blood lipid level and/or kidney diseases and/or cancer diseases.

#Proportion of unemployment among persons who are not working and are in an employable age (≤ 65 years): Cluster 1: 15.4%; Cluster 2: 20.0%; Cluster 3: 36.7%.

Viniol et al.

Viniol et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:294   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-294

Open Data