Table 1

Demographic, low back pain, health outcomes, and the Buddhist characteristics of the religious beliefs and practices of participating office workers with chronic low back pain
Characteristics (n=463) (n=96)
N (%) Mean (SD) N (%) Mean (SD) P-value
Demographic characteristics
Age 38.5 (10.0) 36.5 (9.1) 0.55
Gender 0.69
 Male 113 (24.4) 32 (33.3)
 Female 350 (75.6) 64 (66.7)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.1 (3.9) 23.8 (4.5) 0.16
Education 0.42
 Lower than Bachelor’s degree 80 (17.3) 14 (14.5)
 Bachelor’s degree 298 (64.4) 59 (61.5)
 Higher than Bachelor’s degree 85 (18.3) 23 (24.0)
Exercise frequency in the past 12 months 0.34
Never 123 (26.6) 31 (32.3)
Occasionally 288 (62.2) 52 (54.2)
Regularly 52 (11.2) 13 (13.5)
Low back pain characteristics
Duration of low back pain (months) 28.3 (36.9) 27.8 (36.9) 0.89
Pain intensity in the past 4 weeks using NPS 4.3 (1.8) 4.3 (1.8) 0.87
Radiation of pain in the past 4 weeks 0.74
 Yes 137 (39.6) 30 (31.2)
 No 326 (70.4) 66 (68.8)
Health outcomes
RDQ-24 4.8 (3.8) 5.1 (3.6) 0.40
FABQ work subscale 17.8 (7.8) 16.7 (7.6) 0.21
FABQ physical activity subscale 14.5 (4.5) 14.6 (4.4) 0.72
GHQ-28 4.6 (5.0) 5.0 (5.5) 0.47
 Anxiety subscale 1.3 (2.0) 1.4 (2.2) 0.77
 Depression subscale 0.2 (0.8) 0.4 (1.0) 0.13
AUCG (cortisol) (μg.min/dL) - 208.2 (79.8) -
Cortisol level at awakening - 6.02 (2.5)
Cortisol level at 30 min after awakening - 7.87 (3.4)
Religious beliefs and practices of Buddhism
 Total score 135.1 (14.9) 132.8 (15.1) 0.17
 Beliefs in Buddhist teaching subscale 43.5 (6.1) 42.0 (6.1) 0.05
 Buddhist practice subscale 47.6 (6.3) 46.4 (6.9) 0.09
 Buddhist lifestyle subscale 43.9 (6.2) 43.3 (6.3) 0.63

NPS, numerical pain scale; RDQ-24, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire; FABQ, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire; GHQ-28, the General Health Questionnaire; AUCG, area under the curve with respect to ground.

Sooksawat et al.

Sooksawat et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2013 14:29   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-29

Open Data