Table 3

Predictors of direct, indirect and total costs; base case scenario
Parameter Direct costs Standard error Indirect costs Standard error Total costs Standard error
Constant 4,762 559 *** 3,998 768 *** 8,757 976 ***
Diagnosis 478 128 *** 6.52 231 509 280
Psychiatric comorbidity 664 265 * 808 376 * 1,469 528 **
T1 −2,456 130 *** 3,028 235 *** 571 291 *
T1 x psychiatric comorbidity −578 350 −1,248 600 * −1,829 783 *
T2 −4,634 164 *** −2,370 288 *** −6,996 370 ***
T2 x psychiatric comorbidity 72 517 1,333 833 1,355 1,089
Chronic medical disease 467 155 ** 951 249 *** 1,417 317 ***
Number of previous disc surgeries 503 141 *** 1,142 167 *** 1,645 228 ***
Age (centralized to mean) −6.28 7.66 48 14 *** 41 17 *
Gender (ref: female) −354 130 ** 1,572 189 *** 1,203 246 ***
Being married 95 137 363 273 462 333
ISCED educational level 3 (ref ≤ 2) 451 401 −280 634 132 762
ISCED educational level 5 (ref ≤ 2) 367 414 −790 665 −460 803
Living situation: with partner (ref: alone) −325 231 87 359 −180 440
Living situation: others (ref: alone) −52 458 344 919 374 1,060
Number of children 64 59 −249 102 * −196 128
Private health insurance (ref: statutory health insurance) −57 139 −759 279 ** −799 340 *
Being not employed (ref: being employed) 238 196 −4,502 331 *** −4,228 409 ***
Model statistics
R2 within 0.55 0.42 0.46
R2 between 0.33 0.28 0.26
R2 overall 0.46 0.34 0.36

* p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001.

Konnopka et al.

Konnopka et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2012 13:165   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-13-165

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