Open Access Highly Accessed Study protocol

Effectiveness of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic low back pain: Design, method and protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Kerstin Luedtke2*, Alison Rushton1, Christine Wright1, Tim P Juergens2, Gerd Mueller3 and Arne May2

Author Affiliations

1 School of Health and Population Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, 52 Pritchatts Road, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK

2 Institute of Systems Neurosciences, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistr.52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany

3 Back Pain Clinic "Am Michel", Ludwig-Erhard-Str.18, 20459 Hamburg, Germany

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BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011, 12:290  doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-290

Published: 28 December 2011



Electrical stimulation of central nervous system areas with surgically implanted stimulators has been shown to result in pain relief. To avoid the risks and side effects of surgery, transcranial direct current stimulation is an option to electrically stimulate the motor cortex through the skull. Previous research has shown that transcranial direct current stimulation relieves pain in patients with fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain and chronic pelvic pain. Evidence indicates that the method is pain free, safe and inexpensive.


A randomised controlled trial has been designed to evaluate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation over the motor cortex for pain reduction in patients with chronic low back pain. It will also investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation as a prior treatment enhances the symptom reduction achieved by a cognitive-behavioural group intervention. Participants will be randomised to receive a series of 5 days of transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 20 mins) or 20 mins of sham stimulation; followed by a cognitive-behavioural group programme. The primary outcome parameters will measure pain (Visual Analog Scale) and disability (Oswestry Disability Index). Secondary outcome parameters will include the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, the Funktionsfragebogen Hannover (perceived function), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, bothersomeness and Health Related Quality of Life (SF 36), as well as Patient-Perceived Satisfactory Improvement. Assessments will take place immediately prior to the first application of transcranial direct current stimulation or sham, after 5 consecutive days of stimulation, immediately after the cognitive-behavioural group programme and at 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks follow-up.


This trial will help to determine, whether transcranial direct current stimulation is an effective treatment for patients with chronic low back pain and whether it can further enhance the effects of a cognitive behavioural pain management programme. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89874874.