Table 7

Characteristics of studies investigating levels of cytokines in PBMC of FMS patients.

Author, yr.

Diagnosis criteria

N patients/controls

a) Material

b) Methods

c) Investigated targets

Results

Modified CEBM

level

NOS

W-MeQS


Hader, 1991

Smythe

12/10

a) CD4+ T-lymphocytes from PBMC

b) T-cell culture; stimulation experiments with mitogens

c) IL-2

FMS: higher concentration of mitogen was necessary to achieve optimal IL-2 secretion; peak time of IL-2 secretion was delayed.

Addition of calcium did not correct the reduction in IL-2 secretion in patients with FMS; addition of phorbole myristate acetate led to normal IL-2 secretion.

3d

2

0.4


Barth,

1999

cite Wolfe, 1985

12 FMS/6 rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis controls/6

a) supernatant of PBMC

b) in vitro stimulation of PBMC with different L-tryptophan, contaminated L-tryptophan, peak E;

self established double sandwich ELISA

c) IL-4, IL-2, INF-γ, GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-10

In vitro stimulation of PBMC with different L-tryptophan preparations: 6/12 FMS patients, 2/12 controls: IL-5 and IL-10 production

3d

4

0.1


Wallace, 2001

ACR

56/56

a) serum, PBMC

b) ELISA

c) IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, sIL-2 R, IL-1 RA, IFNγ, TNF

In FMS compared to controls:

IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, sIL-2 R, IFNγ, TNF: ↔ in sera + PBMC

IL-1 RA, IL-8: ⇑ in sera

IL-1 RA, IL-6: ⇑ in PBMC

IL-6: ⇑ in PBMC of patients with disease duration > 2 years.

3d

3

0.5


Amel Kashipaz, 2003

ACR

22 FMS/CFS/19

a) PBMC

b) intracellular cytokine stain; flow cytometry

c) IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, TNF

In FMS compared to controls:

IL-1α ↔

IL-6 ↔

IL-10 ↔

TNF ↔

3d

2

0.7


Kaufmann, 2007

ACR

22/15 CRPS/37

a) T-cells

b) FACS analysis

c) IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10

No difference in percentage of cytokine producing cells between FMS and controls.

3d

2

0.6


Macedo, 2007

ACR

18/22

a) blood, PBMC

b) automated biochip array; before and after 1.5 mg of dexamethasone per os

c) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF

After dexamethasone: reduction of cytokines FMS > controls.

3d

2

0.4


Ortega, 2010

ACR

9/9

a) PBMC

b) ELISA

c) IL-1b, TNF, IL-6, IL-10

For all cytokines investigated: higher values at baseline in FMS compared to controls; after aquatic exercise levels as in controls.

3d

3

0.3


Abbreviations:

ACR: American College of Rheumatology; CEMB: Center of Evidence Based Medicine; ELISA: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; FMS: fibromyalgia syndrome; IL: interleukin; NOS: Newcastle Ottawa Scale; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells; R: receptor; RA: receptor antagonist; s: soluble; W-MeQS: Würzburg Methodological Quality Score; yr: year

Üçeyler et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011 12:245   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-245

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