Table 2

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteria

- Age 18 to 75 years

- Non-acute LBP (> 6 weeks duration of symptoms) and less than 3 months of sick leave due to LBP

- Two or more positive tests for impaired movement control (Luomajoki et al 2007)

- At least 5 points on Roland Morris Disability questionnaire [54]

- Clinical behaviour: posture and movement aggravate and ease symptoms; symptoms are relieved by reducing the strain on the lumbar region

- Written informed consent

Exclusion criteria

- Specific LBP (Fractures, carcinoma, anomalies, nerve root affection with neurological signs e.g. sensitivity or reflex loss, muscle weakness, radicular pain below the knee)

- Less than 6 weeks post-surgery following all surgery on the lower back

- post-surgery with spondylodesis

- high level of psychosocial risk factors (> 130 points on the ÖMPQ)

- Peripheral or central neurological disease

- Contraindications for exercise, e.g. major cardiovascular disease or postural hypotension

- Inability to understand the purpose of the study

- Psychological or psychiatric problems

- Chronic abuse of toxic substances such as drugs or alcohol

- Use of neuroleptics, sedatives, anti-epileptics and antidepressants


Saner et al. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2011 12:207   doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-207

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