Table 1

Summary of the community studies without PSG assessment
Study Country Study design Population studied Prevalence of patients at high risk for OSA Risk factors Quality assessment score
Ozdemir et al. [10]; 2005 Turkey Cross-Sectional study using Sleep and Health questionnaire n-5,339 females-50.6% mean age- 38.4 years BMI-no data provided 40.3% had insomnia, 37% were snorers, 24% had EDS and 6.4% had episodes of witnessed apneas None reported. 2 points: single area study, no discussion of the potential limitations and no funding information.
Kart et al. [11]; 2010 Turkey Cross-Sectional study using adapted version of the Berlin questionnaire n-778 males-100% coal miners- 54.3% mean age-43.3 years for coal miners and 44.3 years for controls mean BMI-27.2 kg/m2 and 26.1 kg/m2 for coal miners and controls respectively 40.7% of all included participants had snoring, 4.37% had witnessed apneas and 3.85% had EDS. None reported. 3 points: single area study, no funding information.
Liu et al. [12]; 2004 Taiwan/China Cross-Sectional study using modified questionnaire via telephone interviewing n-1,252 females-51.6% mean age 38.6 years BMI-data no provided 46.8% were snorers Male gender and age range of 40–59 years 2 points: single area study, no discussion of the potential limitations and no funding information.
Chuang et al. [13]; 2008 Taiwan/China Cross-sectional study using modified questionnaire via telephone interviewing n-4,011 females-59.2% age-15-30-15.8%; age-30-50-36.1%; age > 50-48.1% mean BMI-23,15 kg/m2 Overall presence of snoring was 59.1%: 60.8% for males and 42.5% for females Snoring in females <50 years was present among 37.1% vs. 49.1% in females > 50 years. Snoring in males < 50 years was present among 57.9% vs. 63% in males > 50 years. Overall presence of witnessed apnea was 2.6%: 3.4% for males and 1.9% for females. Witnessed apnea in males < 50 years was present among 2.3% vs. 5.3% in males > 50 years. Witnessed apnea in females < 50 years was present among 1.4% vs. 2.8% in females > 50 years Male gender and age > 50 years 4 points: no funding information provided.
Amra et al. [14]; 2011 Iran Cross-Sectional study using Berlin questionnaire n-3,529 females-53.3% mean age-40.47 and 38.61 years for males and females respectively mean BMI-25.05 and 26.39 kg/m2 for males and females respectively 4.98% of participants were at high risk for OSA (102 females and 74 males) Obesity, older age and illiteracy 3 points: single area study, no discussion of the potential limitations.
Khazaie et al. [15]; 2011 Iran Cross-Sectional study using Berlin questionnaire n-527 males-77.9% mean age-48.6 years mean BMI-25.1 kg/m2 27.3% were at high risk for OSA. 9.67% reported witnessed apneas Illiteracy 3 points: single area study, no funding information.
Nagayoshi et al. [16]; 2011 Japan Cross-Sectional study using modified questionnaire n-8,483 females-63% mean age-59.8 years mean BMI- 23.4 kg/m2 24% of males and 10% of females had snoring. Alcohol intake and possibly smoking 6 points
Suwanprathes et al. [17]; 2010 Thailand Cross-Sectional study using modified questionnaire n-4,680 females-54% median age- 34 years mean BMI- 26.03 kg/m2 for patients with sleep complaints and 22.77 kg/m2 for others 4.6% of general sample had snoring and EDS. 5.3% of males and 3.5 of females had snoring. Male gender, greater waist circumference and BMI 4 points: single area study, no discussion of the potential limitations.
Khoo et al. [18]; 2004 Singapore Cross-Sectional study using modified questionnaire n-2,298 (35%-Chinese, Malay-33.7% and Indians-31.3%) females-52% age 20–59 years-85.4% and age > 60 years-14.6% BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 -6.2% 6.8% of the total population complained of snoring Male gender, age > 60 years, Indian ethnicity, family history, obesity, neck circumference > 40 cm and smoking 6 points
Kamil et al. [19]; 2007 Malaysia Cross-Sectional study using modified questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale for EDS n-1,611 (47.1%-Malay, 36.6%-Chinese, 11.3%-Indian and 5%-others) males-52.9% mean age-49 years BMI-data not provided 47.3% had snoring, 15.2% had witnessed apneas and 14.8% had EDS Older age, Chinese/Indian origin vs. Malay, smoking (both past and current), obesity and sedative use 4 points: no discussion of the potential limitations and no funding information.

Mirrakhimov et al.

Mirrakhimov et al. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2013 13:10   doi:10.1186/1471-2466-13-10

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