Table 3

Crude and adjusted logistic regression analysis of respiratory symptoms with spirometric lung function patterns, taluka Gambat district Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
Crude OR Adjusted OR* P - value
(Confidence interval) (Confidence interval)
% Predicted FVC volume14
Cough 15 2.02 (0.86 – 4.72) 2.33 (0.87 – 6.19) 0.089
Phlegm 16 2.35 (1.04 – 5.27) 3.01 (1.14 – 7.94) <0.026
Wheeze 4.34 (1.81 – 10.42) 7.22 (2.52 – 20.67) <0.001
Shortness of breath 17 3.28 (1.22 – 8.84) 4.91(1.57 – 15.36) <0.006
% Predicted FEV1 volumes18
Cough 2.44 (1.11 – 5.35) 2.69 (1.12 – 6.43) 0.026
Phlegm 2.33 (1.1 – 4.9) 3.01 (1.26 – 7.16) 0.013
Wheeze 6.73 (2.41 – 18.76) 10.77 (3.45 – 33.6) <0.001
Shortness of breath 2.35 (0.88 – 6.28) 2.23 (0.78– 6.36) 0.131
% Predicted FEV1/FVC ratio19
Cough 3.47 (1.05 – 11.41) 3.02 (0.62 – 14.65) 0.169
Phlegm 2.94 (0.90 – 9.60) 3.85 (0.68 – 21.8) 0.127
Wheeze 3.13 (0.88 – 11.03) 4.28 (0.73 – 24.81) 0.105
Shortness of breath 4.8 (1.32 – 17.45) 3.45 (0.69 – 17.15) 0.130
Presence of obstructive20and/or restrictive lung disease (Total sample N 188)
Cough 3.30 (1.43 – 7.06) 3.24 (1.18 – 8.79) 0.021
Phlegm 3.48 (1.56 – 7.72) 5.33 (1.94 – 14.69) 0.001
Wheeze 7.41(2.44 – 22.49) 12.10 (3.34 – 43.79) <0.001
Shortness of breath 3.34 (1.15 – 9.70) 3.02 (0.93 – 9.87) 0.67

*Adjusted for age, height, weight, sex, smoking status, education, socioeconomic status, spoken dialect and arsenic levels.

14. Entered as dichotomous variable >80% and <80%.

15. Chronic cough defined as cough on most days of month, for 3 consecutive months or more in a year.

16. Chronic phlegm defined as presence of phlegm for 3 consecutive months in 2 consecutive years.

17. Participants were asked: do you have to walk slower than people of your age on the level because of breathlessness?

18. Entered as dichotomous variable >80% and <80%.

19. Entered as dichotomous variable >70% and <70%.

20. Obstructive lung disease: defined as having FEV1 <80% and FEV1/FVC <70%; restrictive lung disease: defined as having FEV1 <80% and FEV1/FVC >70%, sample size reduced due to missing/incomplete information; a composite variable containing both obstructive and restrictive lung function was created.

Abbasi et al.

Abbasi et al. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2012 12:81   doi:10.1186/1471-2466-12-81

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