Table 4

Studies examining injury-related post-Persian Gulf service mortality (all investigations involve retrospective cohort designs)

Study Characteristics

Mortality Rate Ratios

Gulf Veterans/Non-Gulf Veterans

(95% Confidence Intervals)


Study [Reference No]

Follow-Up Period in Yearsa

Sampleb

Sample Sizec

Measured

All External Causes (Injury)

Motor Vehicle Accidents

Suicide

Homicide


Kang and Bullman 1996 [28]

M = 3

♂ US Service Members

GV = 544,270

NGV = 456,726

AMRRe

1.17 (1.07–1.29)

1.27 (1.09–1.48)

0.88 (0.72–1.08)

0.80 (0.61–1.05)



♀ US Service Members

GV = 49,919

NGV = 84,517

1.78 (1.16–2.73)

1.81 (0.96–3.41)

1.47 (0.63–3.43)

2.66 (0.96–7.36)


Kang and Bullman 2001 [57]

M = 7

A = 7

♂ US Service Members

GV = 578,369h

NGV = 646,997h

AMRRf

1.04 (0.99–1.10)

1.19 (1.09–1.30)

0.92 (0.83–1.02)

0.90 (0.78–1.04)



♀ US Service Members

GV = 43,533h

NGV = 99,25h

1.39 (1.08–1.80)

1.63 (1.09–2.45)

1.29 (0.78–2.31)

1.54 (0.86–2.76)


MacFarlane et al. 2000 [32]

M = 8

UK Service Members

GV = 53,416

NGV = 53,450

MRR

1.18 (0.98–1.42)i

1.25 (0.91–1.72)

0.98 (0.65–1.48)

0.75 (0.11–4.44)


MacFarlane et al. 2005 [59]

M = 13

UK Service Members

GV = 51,753

NGV = 50,808

AMRRg

1.19 (1.02–1.39)

1.44 (1.13–1.84)j

1.04 (0.80–1.36)

no data in article


Sim et al. 2003 [61]

M = 10

Australian Service Members

GV = 1,833

NGV = 2,847

AMRRi

1.1 (0.5–2.9)

few cases

no data in article

few cases

no data in article

few cases

no data in article


aM = Maximal follow-up period (the first number is the year the last person entered the study to the end of the survey period; the second number is the year the first person entered the study to the end of the survey period). A = Average follow-up time (if reported).

bUS = United States, UK = United Kingdom, ♂ = male, ♀ = female

cGV = Gulf War veterans; NGV = Not Gulf War veterans

dMRR = mortality rate ratio; AMRR = adjusted mortality rate ratio

eAdjusted for age, gender, race, branch of service, and component

fAdjusted for age, race, service branch, component, and marital status

gAdjusted for age

hEstimated from demographics in article.

iAdjusted for age, rank, and service type

jCalled "transportation accidents" using ICD-10

Knapik et al. BMC Public Health 2009 9:231   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-231

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