Table 3

Studies examining injury-related post-Vietnam service mortality

Study Characteristics

Mortality Rate Ratios

Vietnam Veterans/Non-Vietnam Veterans

(95% Confidence Intervals Where Available)


Study [Reference No]

Follow-Up Period (years)a

Sampleb

Sample Sizec

Measured

All External Causes (Injury)

Motor Vehicle Accidents

Suicide

Homicide


Proportionate Mortality Investigations


Kogan & Clapp 1985 [7]

M = 10–25

US White ♂ Veterans from MA State

VN = 840

NVN = 2,515

PMR

1.08

1.10

0.93

0.80


Lawrence 1985 [20]

M = 7–10

US ♂ Veterans from NY State

VN = 555

NVN = 941

APMRe

no data in article

0.86 (0.66–1.11)

1.24 (0.88–1.75)

1.59 (0.86–2.94)


Anderson et al. 1986 [38]

M = 3–14

US White ♂ Veterans from WI State

VN = 922

NVN = 1,569

PMR

0.99 (0.96–1.03)

1.03 (0.95–1.11)

0.98 (0.84–1.15)

no data in article


Breslin et al. 1988 [39]

M = 8–17

US Army ♂ Veterans

VN = 19,708

NVN = 22,904

PMR

1.03 (1.02–1.04)

1.05 (1.01–1.09)

0.93 (0.88–0.98)

1.01 (0.73–1.40)



US Marine ♂ Veterans

VN = 4,527

NVN = 3,781

1.00 (0.95–1.05)f

1.07 (0.97–1.18)

0.93 (0.86–1.01)

0.98 (0.89–1.08)


Bullman et al. 1990 [40]

M = 11–19

US Army Veterans

VN = 6,668

NVN = 27,917

PMR

1.06 (1.03–1.09)

1.08 (1.02–1.14)

0.97 (0.90–1.04)

1.07 (0.99–1.16)


Watanabe et al. 1991 [24]

M = 10–20

US Army ♂ Veterans

VN = 24,145

NVN = 27,917

PMR

1.03 (1.01–1.05)

1.03 (0.99–1.07)f

0.96 (0.91–1.01)f

1.02 (0.98–1.10)f



US Marine ♂ Veterans

VN = 5,501

NVN = 4,505

1.02 (0.99–1.05)f

1.02 (0.95–1.12)f

0.99 (0.89–1.10)f

1.04 (0.93–1.17)f


Visintainer et al. 1995 [41]

M = 18–24

US ♂ Veterans from MI State

VN = 3,364

NVN = 5,229

PMR

0.95 (0.89–1.02)

no data in article

1.03 (0.93–1.14)

1.03 (0.93–1.14)


Watanabe & Kang 1996 [26]

M = 17–23

US Army ♂ Veterans

VN = 27,596

NVN = 31,757

PMR

1.04

1.03

0.97

1.05 (1.01–1.09)



US Marine ♂ Veterans

VN = 6,237

NVN = 5,040

1.02

1.02

1.01

1.01


Retrospective Cohort Investigations


Fett et al. 1984 [42]

M = 9–16

Australian ♂ Army Conscripts

VN = 19,205

NVN = 26,957

MRR

1.3 (1.0–1.3)

1.2 (0.9–1.5)

1.5 (0.9–2.3)

no data in article


Boyle et al. 1987 [9]

M = 12–18

A = 14

US Army ♂ Junior Enlisted Veterans

VN = 9,324

NVN = 8,989

MRR

1.25 (1.00–1.55)

1.48 (1.04–2.09)

0.98 (0.58–1.65)

0.99 (0.57–1.71)


Thomas et al. 1991 [23]

M = 15–23

A = 17

US ♀ Service Members

VN = 4,582

NVN = 5,324

AMRRg

1.33 (0.80–2.23)

3.19 (1.03–9.86)

0.96 (0.39–2.39)

no data in article


Watanabe et al. 1995 [25]

M = 18–24

A = 22

US Army Marines

VN = 10,716

NVN = 9,346

MRR

1.20 (0.99–1.45)

1.04 (0.76–1.43)

1.15 (0.75–1.76)

no data in article


Dalager & Kang 1997 [27]

M = 18–26

A = 20

US Army Chemical Corps Personnel

VN = 2,872

NVN = 2,737

AMRRh

0.83 (0.57–1.22)

no data in article

no data in article

no data in article


Boehmer et al. 2004 [29]

M = 29–35

A = 30

US Army ♂ Junior Enlisted Veterans

VN = 9,324

NVN = 8,989

MRR

1.19 (1.01–1.39)

1.24 (0.94–1.64)i

1.03 (0.74–1.44)i

0.90 (0.60–1.36)i


Cypel & Kang 2008 [51]

M = 32–40

US ♀ Service Members

VN = 4,586

NVN = 5,325

AMRRj

1.34 (0.91–1.96)

2.60 (1.22–5.55)

0.90 (0.44–1.85)

no data in article


aM = Maximal follow-up period (the first number is the year the last person entered the study to the end of the survey period; the second number is the year the first person entered the study to the end of the survey period). A = Average follow-up time (if reported).

bUS = United States, MA = Massachusetts, MI = Michigan, NY = New York, WI = Wisconsin

cVN = Vietnam-era veterans serving in Vietnam; NVN = Vietnam-era veterans not serving in Vietnam

dPMR = proportionate mortality ratio; APMR = adjusted proportionate mortality ratio; MRR = mortality rate ratio; AMRR = adjusted mortality rate ratio

eAdjusted for age, race, and education

fApproximate confidence interval calculated from data in study

gAdjusted for age, race, rank, military occupational specialty, and duration of military service

hAdjusted for age, race, rank, and duration of military service

iCalculated from data in article

jAdjusted for rank, nursing status, duration of military service, age at entry, and race

Knapik et al. BMC Public Health 2009 9:231   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-231

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