Table 1

Study overview (included studies).

Study

First author, year of publication

Region

Study perioda

Designb

Sex

Case definition (or at risk populationc)d

Controls (or years of follow-upc)

Matching factorse


1

Broders

1920 [74]

USA

up to 1920

CCH

M+F

NS

No lip cancer

NS

2

Moore

1953 [57]

USA

1951–1952

CCH

M

50+ years

No cancer

NS

3

Wynder

1957 [58]

USA

up to 1957

CCH

Mf

NS

Benign diseases, lymphoma, skin and gastrointestinal cancer

Age, rel, ins, ses

4

Peacock

1960 [93]

USA

1952–1958

CCH

M+F

With data on tobacco habits

No oral cancer

Sex, race, ins

5

Vogler

1962 [62]

USA

1956–1957

CCH

M+F

Incident and prevalent

No oral cancer

None

6

Vincent

1963 [94]

USA

up to 1963

CCH

Mg

Incident

Successive gastrointestinal patients

Age

7

Martinez

1969 [95]

Puerto Rico

1966

CCH/P

M+F

Incident in 1966

Patients without cancer and community controls

Age, sex

8

Keller

1970 [75]

USA

1958–1962

CCH

M

Discharged with complete records

No oral cancer

Age, hosp, time

9

Browne

1977 [96]

UK

1957–1971

CCP

M+F

NS

Community controls

Age, sex, occ, area

10

Williams

1977 [97]

USA

1969–1971

CCH

M+F

Incident, Third National Cancer Survey

No tobacco- or alcohol-related cancers

None

11

Wynder

1977 [98]

USA

1969–1975

CCH

M

Histologically confirmed

No tobacco-related diseases

Age, race, area

12

Westbrook

1980 [63]

USA

1955–1975

CCH

F

Incident

Unstated hospital controls

Age, time

13

Winn

1981 [13]

USA

1975–1978

CCH

F

Incident and death certificate

No oral cancer or mental disease

Age, race, type, area

14

Wynder

1983 [99]

USA

1977–1980

CCH

Mf

Histologically confirmed

No tobacco-related diseases

Age, race, hosp, ins

15

Stockwell

1986 [65]

USA

1982

CCP

M+F

Cancer registry 1982

Melanoma or endocrine cancer

None

16

Blot

1988 [100]

USA

1984–1985

CCP

M+F

Incident

Population controls

Age, sex, area, race

17

Spitz

1988 [101]

USA

1985–1987

CCH

M+F

Registered 1985–1986, completed questionnaire, histologically confirmed with squamous cell carcinoma of defined sites

No squamous cell carcinoma

Age, sex

18

Franco

1989 [102]

Brazil

1986–1988

CCH

M+F

Incident, not lip or salivary glands

No cancer or mental disorder

Age, sex, area, time

19

Blomqvist

1991 [103]

Sweden

up to 1991

CCH

M+F

NS

No cancer

Age, sex

20

Maden

1992 [104]

USA

1985–1989

CCP

M

Squamous cell, 18–65 years, with residential telephone

Population controls

Age, time

21

Sterling

1992 [67]

USA

1986

CCP

M+F

Registered in National Mortality Followback Study 1986, age 25+ years

Population controls

None

22

Zahm

1992 [72]

USA

1954–1980

Cohort

M

US veterans who returned questionnaire on tobacco use in 1954 or 1957

Mortality 1954–1980

NA

23

Mashberg

1993 [68]

USA

1972–1983

CCH

M

Incident in 1972–1983, US veterans

No cancer or dysplasia of pharynx, larynx, lung or oesophagus

None

24

Perry

1993h

USA

about 1992

CCH

M+F

NS

Cardiovascular diseases

NS

25

Kabat

1994 [59]

USA

1977–1990

CCH

M+F

Incident

No tobacco-related diseases

Age, sex, race, hosp, time

26

Bundgaard

1995 [105]

Denmark

1986–1990

CCP

M+F

Histologically confirmed

Population controls

Age, sex, area

27

Lewin

1998 [64]

Sweden

1988–1990

CCP

M

Incident and registered, not identified at autopsy

Population controls

Age, area

28

Muscat

1998 [106]

USA

1977–1990

CCH

M+F

Incident, not mentally impaired

No tobacco-related diseases

Age, sex, race, time

29

Schildt

1998 [73]

Sweden

1980–1989

CCP

M+F

Histologically confirmed, not deceased without a relative

Population controls

Age, sex, area, vit

30

Schwartz

1998 [69]

USA

1990–1995

CCP

M+F

Histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma, 18–65 years

Population controls

Age, sex

31

Boffetta

2005 [82]

Norway

1966–2001

Cohort

M

Population sample and relatives of migrants to USA

Incidence 1966–2001

NA

32

Henley

2005 [66]

USA

1959–2000

Cohort

M

Never smokers in Cancer Prevention Study I (CPS I) and II (CPS II)

Mortality CPS I : 1959 to 1972 CPS II : 1982 to 2000

NA


a In studies 3 and 6 the starting year of collection of cases was not given

b CCH = case control with hospital controls, CCP = case control with population controls

c For cohort studies

d NS = not stated

e NS = not stated, NA = not applicable, rel. = religion, ins. = insurance status, hosp. = hospital, time = period of admission, occ. = occupation, type = incident or decedent, vit. = vital status

f Exposure data only available for males

g Insufficient information for females

h Attributable oral cancer risk due to smokeless tobacco use based on a case-control study at Sinai Hospital in Detroit; unpublished

Weitkunat et al. BMC Public Health 2007 7:334   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-334

Open Data