Table 2

Multivariate logistic regression models of cocaine only and opiate only and both cocaine and opiate overdose deaths among all accidental drug decedents ages 15–64, New York City, 1990–2000*

Cocaine only overdose deaths

Opiate only overdose deaths

Cocaine and opiate overdose deaths

Adjusted

Adjusted

Adjusted

Characteristics

OR

95 CI

OR

95 CI

OR

95 CI


Sex

Female

REF

---

REF

---

REF

---

Male

0.77

0.68–0.87

1.22

1.08–1.38

1.05

0.94–1.17

Race/ethnicity

White

REF

---

REF

---

REF

---

Black

3.23

2.85–3.67

0.36

0.32–0.41

0.94

0.84–1.04

Hispanic

1.37

1.19–1.58

0.78

0.69–0.87

1.06

0.94–1.18

Age

15–24

REF

---

REF

---

REF

---

25–34

1.41

1.07–1.88

0.68

0.54–0.84

1.15

0.93–1.43

35–44

1.35

1.02–1.78

0.86

0.69–1.06

0.98

0.80–1.21

45–54

1.81

1.36–2.41

0.92

0.73–1.15

0.73

0.58–0.91

55–64

2.95

2.09–4.17

0.80

0.58–1.09

0.49

0.36–0.67

Borough of death

Manhattan

REF

---

REF

---

REF

---

Bronx

1.02

0.89–1.17

1.13

0.99–1.28

0.90

0.80–1.02

Brooklyn

1.04

0.92–1.19

1.46

1.29–1.65

0.70

0.63–0.79

Queens

1.05

0.89–1.24

1.34

1.15–1.55

0.75

0.66–0.86

Staten Island

1.28

0.90–1.81

1.30

0.96–1.76

0.67

0.49–0.90

Place of OD episode

Other inside (not residence)

REF

---

REF

---

Residence

0.96

0.84–1.10

1.09

0.96–1.23

Outside

1.27

1.05–1.54

0.86

0.71–1.04

Cannabis detected

no

REF

---

REF

---

yes

0.85

0.69–1.03

1.27

1.08–1.49

Alcohol detected

no

REF

---

REF

---

REF

---

yes

0.53

0.48–0.59

1.39

1.26–1.53

1.20

1.10–1.32

Year of death

1990

REF

---

REF

---

REF

---

1991

1.25

0.96–1.62

0.80

0.62–1.04

0.99

0.78–1.25

1992

1.12

0.86–1.45

0.77

0.61–1.00

1.12

0.89–1.42

1993

0.80

0.62–1.03

0.81

0.64–1.03

1.39

1.12–1.73

1994

0.98

0.76–1.26

0.76

0.60–0.97

1.27

1.02–1.58

1995

0.74

0.58–0.96

1.00

0.79–1.27

1.23

0.99–1.53

1996

1.01

0.78–1.30

1.05

0.83–1.35

0.95

0.75–1.19

1997

0.90

0.69–1.17

1.34

1.05–1.71

0.82

0.65–1.04

1998

0.85

0.65–1.11

1.03

0.81–1.33

1.10

0.87–1.39

1999

0.85

0.65–1.12

1.21

0.94–1.57

0.94

0.73–1.20

2000

0.74

0.57–0.97

1.31

1.03–1.68

0.96

0.76–1.22


*analysis restricted to decedents with opiates-only, cocaine only, and both opiates and cocaine detected

Bernstein et al. BMC Public Health 2007 7:31   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-31

Open Data