Table 1

International Comparison of Tobacco Smoking Surveys Conducted among Physicians between 1974 and 2004

Publication Details

Smoking Ratec

Study Details


Authors a

Year b

Country

All

Male

Female

Methodology

Sample Size

Response Rate d

Additional Findings


Smith et al [28]

2004

China

16%

32%

0%

Hand Delivered

286

79%

Physicians younger than 25 had the lowest smoking rate

Soto Mas et al [29]

2003

United States e

7%

-

-

Postal Survey

45

56%

No physicians reported being current cigarette smokers

Kenna & Wood [30]

2002

United States

4%

-

-

Postal Survey

104

63%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to dentists

Pärna et al [31,32]

2002

Estonia

-

25%

11%

Postal Survey

2668

68%

Twice as many males as females were ex-smokers

Hodgetts et al [33]

2002

Bosnia & Herzegovina

40%

-

-

Hand Delivered

112

73%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

Gunes et al [34]

2002

Turkey

38%

-

-

Hand Delivered

257

85%

Around one-fifth of smokers were only occasional smokers

Nollen et al [35]

2002

Nigeria

3%

-

-

Hand Delivered

373

60%

Smoking rates in two different hospitals were the same

Misra & Vadaparampil [36]

2002

United States f

3%

-

-

Postal Survey

254

37%

The smoking status of a further 6% of physicians was not defined

Barengo et al [37]

2001

Finland

-

5%

3%

Postal Survey

3057

69%

Occasional smoking was more common among male physicians

Kannegaard et al [38]

2001

Denmark

15%

-

-

Postal Survey

729

75%

The physicians' smoking rate fell 4% between 1999 and 2001

Ahmadi et al [39]

2001*

Iran

9%

-

-

Hand Delivered

111

n/sg

Residents had a higher smoking rate than attending physicians

Pizzo et al [40]

2000

Italy

28%

32%

20%

Telephone Survey

526

72%

Physician smoking rates differed by geographical region

Ohida et al [41]

2000

Japan

-

27%

7%

Postal Survey

3771

84%

Male physicians aged 40–49 had the highest smoking rate

An et al [42]

2000

United States

2%

-

-

Postal Survey

750

61%

A further 17% of physicians had ever smoked in the past

John & Hanke [43]

1999

Germany

18%

-

-

Census Data

1144

79%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

La Vecchia et al [44]

1999

Italy

24%

25%

23%

Interview

501

n/s

Physicians aged 41–50 had the highest smoking rate

Power et al [45]

1999

Ireland

16%

-

-

Telephone Survey

171

85%

Most physicians understood the dangers of smoking

Williang et al [46]

1999

Denmark

25%

-

-

Postal Survey

445

91%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

McEwan & West [47]

1999

United Kingdom

4%

-

-

Postal and Telephone

303

75%

Most physicians felt they should advise patients to quit

Nardini et al [48]

1998*

Italy

39%

-

-

Hand Delivered

959

57%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

Josseran et al [49]

1998

France

32%

34%

25%

Telephone Survey

2073

67%

Physicians older than 40 had the highest smoking rate

Hepburn et al [50]

1997

United States

11%

-

-

Postal Survey

150

65%

More than half of the smokers used smokeless tobacco

Kawahara et al [51]

1997

Japan

26%

28%

5%

Postal Survey

709

91%

Physicians aged 40–49 years had the highest smoking rate

Samuels [52]

1996

Israel

16%

16%

15%

Interview

260

87%

The highest smoking rate was seen among radiologists

Zanetti et al [53]

1996

Italy

31%

29%

34%

Hand Delivered

2453

68%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

Hay [54]

1996

New Zealand

5%

5%

5%

Census Data

7335

97%h

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

Li et al [55]

1996

China

45%

61%

12%

Hand Delivered

493

82%

Smoking rates have increased dramatically in recent years

Young & Ward [56]

1996

Australia

3%

4%

2%

Postal Survey

855

67%

Older physicians were more likely to be current smokers

Roche et al [57]

1996*

Australia

4%

-

-

Postal Survey

908

55%

A further 8% said they had previously smoked tobacco

Roche et al [58]

1995*

Australia

6%

6%

5%

Postal Survey

1365

55%

Trainee psychiatrists were more likely to be smokers

Barengo et al [59]

1995

Finland

-

7%

3%

Postal Survey

1221

76%

Male physicians older than 45 had the highest smoking rate

Nardini et al [60]

1995

Italy

25%

-

-

Conference Survey

605

62%

Physicians aged 40–50 years had the highest smoking rate

Hill & Braithwaite [61]

1994

United States i

4%

-

-

Postal Survey

121

32%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to dentists

Kawane & Soejima [62]

1994

Japan

29%

-

-

Hand Delivered

163

60%

Younger physicians had the highest smoking rates

Josseran et al [63]

1994

France

34%

36%

25%

Telephone Survey

1013

65%

Male physicians were also heavier smokers than female physicians

Kawakami et al [64]

1994

Japan

21%

24%

7%

Postal Survey

323

71%

Only 60% of smokers intended to reduce or quit their habit in future

Grossman et al [65]

1994

Costa Rica

19%

-

-

Hand Delivered

217

76%

88% of smokers intended to reduce or quit their habit in future

Frank et al [66–68]

1994

United States

-

-

4%

Postal Survey

4501

59%

Fewer family physicians smoked than physicians, generally

Tapia-Conyer et al [69]

1993

Mexico

27%

30%

21%

Postal Survey

3488

98%

Physicians aged 33–43 years had the highest smoking rate

Polyzos et al [70]

1992

Greece

49%

-

-

Hand Delivered

148

n/s

Surgeons had a higher smoking rate than internists

Heloma et al [71]

1992

Finland

10%

-

-

Postal Survey

725

72%

More physicians smoked when compared to nurses

De Koninck et al [72]

1992

Canada

-

13%

7%

Postal Survey

1540

51%

Over half of all male physicians had previously smoked

Bener et al [73]

1992

Arab Emirates

36%

44%

8%

Postal Survey

275

92%

Almost half the smokers were aged over 45 years

Tessier et al [74]

1991

France

21%

22%

14%

Postal Survey

4318

37%

Over half had made at least one attempt to quit smoking

Hussain et al [75]

1991

United Kingdom

5%

-

-

Postal Survey

1069

82%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

Yaacob & Abdullah [76]

1991

Malaysia

18%

25%

0%

Postal and Hand Delivered

120

100%

Around half the smokers had begun before medical school

Doll et al [77]

1990

United Kingdom

-

18%

-

Postal Survey

10807

94%

A large proportion of smokers only smoked pipes and cigars

Kaetsu et al [78]

1990

Japan

32%

33%

5%

Postal Survey

3565

63%

Male physicians younger than 40 had the highest smoking rate

Jormanainen et al [79]

1990

Finland

-

10%

6%

Postal Survey

1231

76%

General practitioners had a higher smoking rate than specialists

Brink et al [80]

1990

United States

2%

-

-

Postal Survey

132

77%

Physicians smoked at similar rates when compared to dentists

Bener et al [73]

1990

Kuwait

38%

45%

16%

Postal Survey

252

84%

Over half the smokers were aged 35 to 44 years

Hensrud & Sprafka [81]

1990

United States

9%

10%

2%

Postal Survey

393

83%

Physicians aged 60–69 years had the highest smoking rate

Waalkens et al [82]

1989

The Netherlands

32%

37%

14%

Postal Survey

362

63%

More consultants smoked than house officers

Kawane [83–85]

1989

Japan

25%

26%

6%

Postal Survey

3640

59%

Chest physicians smoked at lower rates than physicians, generally

Dekker et al [86]

1989

Netherlands

38%

41%

24%

Postal Survey

263

82%

More general practitioners smoked than consultants

Hughes et al [87]

1989

United States

6%

-

-

Postal Survey

5426

59%

Older physicians were more likely to have ever smoked

Scott et al [88]

1988

United States

5%

5%

4%

Postal Survey

2341

86%

Physicians aged 55–64 years had the highest smoking rate

Fowler et al [89]

1988

United Kingdom

4%

-

-

Postal Survey

2176

75%

A further 11% of male physicians smoked pipes or cigars

Saeed [90]

1987

Saudi Arabia

34%

-

-

Hand Delivered

716

81%

Males smoked more sticks per day than female physicians

Nutbeam & Catford [91]

1987

Wales

14%

17%

0%

Postal Survey

310

60%

Almost one-quarter of female physicians were ex-smokers

Hughes et al [92]

1987

United States

4%

-

-

Postal Survey

1754

60%

Psychiatry residents had the highest smoking rate

Davies & Rajan [93]

1987

United Kingdom

3%

-

-

Postal Survey

94

72%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

Cheng & Lam [94]

1987

Hong Kong

5%

7%

0%

Postal Survey

133

88%

Only 8% of female physicians had ever smoked tobacco

Stillman et al [95]

1987

United States

6%

-

-

Postal Survey

6050

69%

A no-smoking hospital policy helped reduce the smoking rate

Sarkar et al [96]

1987

India

32%

48%

3%

Interview

218

99%

Physicians aged 20–29 had the highest smoking rate

Franceschi et al [97]

1985

Italy

31%

-

-

Postal and Telephone

709

86%

Over half of the smokers reported no attempt to quit smoking

Linn et al [98]

1984

United States

4%

-

-

Postal and Telephone

211

67%

A further 2% smoked either weekly or monthly

Joossens et al [99]

1983

Belgium

32%

34%

16%

Postal Survey

2157

67%

Around half of the smokers were evaluated as being dissonant

Kaetsu et al [100]

1983

Japan

43%

45%

9%

Postal Survey

4232

84%

Male physicians younger than 40 had the highest smoking rate

Sachs [101,102]

1983

United States

12%

-

-

Conference Survey

594

27%

Smoking was higher among non-practicing specialists

Seiler [103]

1983*

Scotland

19%

-

-

Postal Survey

607

81%

Almost half of smoking doctors had spouses who also smoked

Senior [104]

1982*

Canada

19%

-

-

Hand Delivered

88

52%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

Fortmann et al [105]

1982

United States

8%

-

-

Postal Survey

221

62%

Physicians older than 46 years had the highest smoking rate

Hay [106]

1981

New Zealand

15%

15%

13%

Census Data

4937

97%h

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to nurses

Ballal [107]

1980

Sudan

-

46%

1%

Postal and Hand Delivered

753

72%

Some respiratory symptoms were more common among smokers

Wyshak et al [108]

1979

United States

14%

-

-

Postal Survey

289

70%

Fewer physicians smoked when compared to lawyers

Wells et al [109]

1978

United States

-

15%

-

Hand Delivered

151

76%

Surgeons/obstetricians had the highest smoking rates

Dodds et al [110]

1977

Australia

21%

22%

16%

Postal and Telephone

275

80%

Physicians aged 50–59 years had the highest smoking rate

Hay [111]

1976

New Zealand

-

20%

17%

Census Data

4089

97%h

Obstetricians had the highest smoking rates of all

Aarø et al [112]

1974

Norway

-

35%

22%

Postal Survey

1138

95%

Male physicians aged 55–64 had the highest smoking rate

Rankin et al [113]

1974

Australia

14%

14%

17%

Postal Survey

1276

69%

Physicians aged 50–59 years had the highest smoking rate


a Including the reference number as listed in this manuscript, b Year in which the study was undertaken – not the year of publication (Studies that continued over more than one year list the latest year. In cases where the study year was not listed, manuscripts are arranged by publication year and marked with an asterisk*), c Smoking rates rounded to the nearest whole number, d Response rates rounded to the nearest whole number (as some studies investigated multiple occupational groups, response rates may be indicative of the entire group rather than just physicians), e Subjects were restricted to Hispanic physicians living in the United States, f Subjects were restricted to Asian-Indian physicians living in the United States, g The survey used a convenience sample with an unspecified response rate, h Response rate of the entire census, i Subjects were restricted to African-American physicians living in the United States

Smith and Leggat BMC Public Health 2007 7:115   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-115

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