Table 3

Results of multilevel analysis for health risk behaviour in Japanese men: odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of individual and regional variables.

Variable

Current smoking (N = 19816)

Excess alcohol consumption (N = 18922)

Physical inactivity (N = 20728)

Poor dietary habits (N = 20728)

Stress (N = 19817)

Non-attendance of health check-up (N = 20148)







Individual

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)

OR

(95%CI)


Individual

Age (10 years)

0.81

(0.78, 0.84) ***

1.17

(1.12, 1.21) ***

0.93

(0.90, 0.97) *

0.71

(0.69, 0.74) ***

1.01

(0.98, 1.04)

0.88

(0.84, 0.91) ***

Marital status

Married

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Single

0.72

(0.66, 0.78) ***

0.62

(0.56, 0.68) ***

0.98

(0.90, 1.07)

1.04

(0.96, 1.13)

0.82

(0.75, 0.88) ***

1.73

(1.58, 1.89) ***

Widow

1.35

(0.93, 1.95)

0.83

(0.55, 1.25)

1.08

(0.72, 1.62)

1.28

(0.87, 1.87)

0.97

(0.67, 1.41)

1.11

(0.71, 1.74)

Divorced

1.89

(1.55, 2.31) ***

1.10

(0.91, 1.33)

1.14

(0.93, 1.40)

1.28

(1.06, 1.53) *

1.06

(0.88, 1.27)

1.75

(1.43, 2.12) ***

Occupation a

Profession

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Manager

1.14

(1.01, 1.28) *

1.07

(0.93, 1.22)

0.94

(0.83, 1.07)

0.92

(0.81, 1.05)

1.03

(0.92, 1.16)

0.78

(0.67, 0.92) ***

Clerk

0.94

(0.84, 1.06)

0.97

(0.85, 1.11)

1.06

(0.93, 1.20)

0.96

(0.85, 1.09)

0.99

(0.88, 1.11)

0.59

(0.50, 0.69) ***

Sales work

1.31

(1.17, 1.47) ***

1.18

(1.04, 1.34) *

1.11

(0.98, 1.25)

1.06

(0.94, 1.19)

1.01

(0.90, 1.13)

1.68

(1.47, 1.91) ***

Service work

1.26

(1.12, 1.42) ***

1.13

(0.98, 1.29)

1.20

(1.05, 1.37) *

1.19

(1.06, 1.35) **

1.07

(0.95, 1.21)

1.34

(1.17, 1.54) ***

Agriculture

1.16

(0.97, 1.39)

1.20

(0.99, 1.46)

1.03

(0.85, 1.25)

0.93

(0.77, 1.11)

0.73

(0.61, 0.87) ***

1.84

(1.52, 2.24) ***

Trasnport

1.61

(1.39, 1.87) ***

1.29

(1.10, 1.51) **

1.19

(1.01, 1.39) *

1.35

(1.16, 1.56) ***

0.92

(0.80, 1.06)

1.08

(0.91, 1.28)

Labour

1.49

(1.36, 1.63) ***

1.26

(1.14, 1.39) ***

1.13

(1.03, 1.25) *

1.12

(1.02, 1.23) *

0.89

(0.81, 0.98) *

1.10

(0.99, 1.22)

Others

1.08

(0.97, 1.20)

0.91

(0.80, 1.03)

0.90

(0.80, 1.01)

1.00

(0.89, 1.11)

1.03

(0.92, 1.15)

1.33

(1.17, 1.50) ***

Income quintile

5th (highest)

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

4th

1.11

(1.01, 1.21) *

0.96

(0.87, 1.06)

1.17

(1.06, 1.29) ***

1.08

(0.98, 1.19)

1.10

(1.00, 1.20) *

1.10

(0.98, 1.24)

3rd

1.12

(1.02, 1.23) *

0.99

(0.89, 1.10)

1.31

(1.19, 1.45) ***

1.16

(1.06, 1.28) **

1.07

(0.97, 1.17)

1.34

(1.19, 1.50) ***

2nd

1.30

(1.18, 1.43) ***

1.03

(0.92, 1.14)

1.43

(1.29, 1.58) ***

1.26

(1.14, 1.39) ***

1.09

(0.99, 1.20)

1.99

(1.77, 2.23) ***

1st (lowest)

1.29

(1.17, 1.43) ***

0.99

(0.89, 1.10)

1.42

(1.28, 1.58) ***

1.28

(1.16, 1.42) ***

1.15

(1.05, 1.27) **

3.14

(2.80, 3.52) ***

Region

Per capita income (million yen)

0.89

(0.71, 1.11)

1.03

(0.82, 1.29)

1.05

(0.92, 1.20)

1.09

(0.94, 1.26)

1.44

(1.24, 1.67) ***

1.42

(1.15, 1.76) **

Unemployment (%)

1.06

(1.01, 1.12) *

1.07

(1.01, 1.13) *

0.99

(0.96, 1.02)

1.02

(0.99, 1.06)

1.01

(0.98, 1.05)

1.11

(1.05, 1.16) **

Regional random variance (SE) b

0.029

(0.008) ***

0.028

(0.008) ***

0.000

(0.000)

0.004

(0.003)

0.005

(0.003)

0.029

(0.009) **

-2 log likelihood

26317.0

22089.1

23313.1

25487.2

26207.1

19463.1

Intra-regional correlation (%)

8.0

7.7

0.0

1.1

1.6

8.0


* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001

a Profession = professional and technical workers; manager = managers and officials; clerk = clerical and related workers; agriculture = agriculture, forestiry and fishery workers; transport = workers in transport and communications; labour = craftmen, mining, production process, and construction workers and labourers.

b Variance at the regional level in a logit model

Fukuda et al. BMC Public Health 2005 5:53   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-5-53

Open Data