Table 1

Characteristics of the adult and pediatric study population by case status
Adults Children
Total study population Tested negative Tested positive Total study population Tested negative Tested positive
(N = 402) (N = 229) (N = 173) (N = 352) (N = 112) (N = 240)
Variable N % N % N % N % N % N %
Ethnicity*
White 266 66.2 164 71.6 102 59.0 166 47.2 70 62.5 96 40.0
East/Southeast Asian 42 10.5 23 10.0 19 11.0 47 13.4 11 9.8 36 15.0
South Asian 32 8.0 11 4.8 21 12.1 47 13.4 14 12.5 33 13.8
Black 19 4.7 5 2.2 14 8.1 35 9.9 5 4.5 30 12.5
Other 35 8.7 20 8.7 15 8.7 49 13.9 10 8.9 39 16.3
Age
<5 N/A N/A N/A 94 26.7 45 40.2 49 20.4
5-11 N/A N/A N/A 135 38.4 31 27.7 104 43.3
12-17 N/A N/A N/A 123 34.9 36 32.1 87 36.3
18-34 150 37.3 79 34.5 71 41.0 N/A N/A N/A
35-49 124 30.9 71 31.0 53 30.6 N/A N/A N/A
50-64 95 23.6 58 25.3 37 21.4 N/A N/A N/A
65+ 33 8.2 21 9.2 12 6.9 N/A N/A N/A
Gender (female) 241 60.0 139 60.7 102 59.0 246 69.9 80 71.4 166 69.2
BMI class
Normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI <25) 187 46.5 111 48.5 76 43.9 115 32.7 38 33.9 77 32.1
Overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) 114 28.4 62 27.1 52 30.1 32 9.1 8 7.1 24 10.0
Obese (BMI ≥ 30) 72 17.9 38 16.6 34 19.7
Current smoker 110 27.4 70 30.6 40 23.1 4 1.14 2 1.79 2 0.83
Missing N/A N/A N/A 214 60.8 74 66.07 410 58.3
Number of family doctor visits in the past year
<1 73 18.2 45 19.7 28 16.2 78 22.2 20 17.9 58 24.2
2 to 6 257 63.9 152 66.4 105 60.7 200 56.8 68 60.7 132 55.0
>6 72 17.9 32 14.0 40 23.1 74 21.0 24 21.4 50 20.8
Underlying medical conditions 86 21.4 42 18.3 44 25.4 56 15.9 20 17.9 36 15.0
Material deprivation
1 (low) 95 23.6 63 27.5 32 18.5 71 20.2 26 23.2 45 18.8
2 87 21.6 46 20.1 41 23.7 74 21.0 26 23.2 48 20.0
3 65 16.2 37 16.2 28 16.2 67 19.0 23 20.5 44 18.3
4 58 14.4 28 12.2 30 17.3 70 19.9 19 17.0 51 21.3
5 (high) 73 18.2 45 19.7 28 16.2 56 15.9 18 16.1 38 15.8
Social deprivation
1 (low) 84 20.9 47 20.5 37 21.4 105 29.4 37 33.0 68 28.3
2 69 17.2 35 15.3 34 19.7 73 20.7 23 20.5 50 20.8
3 74 18.4 44 19.2 30 17.3 60 17.1 20 17.9 40 16.7
4 84 20.9 51 22.3 33 19.1 58 16.5 19 17.0 39 16.3
5 (high) 67 16.7 42 18.3 25 14.5 42 11.9 13 11.6 29 12.1
Total deprivation category
1 (low) 71 17.7 38 16.6 33 19.1 77 21.9 30 26.8 47 19.6
2 257 63.9 153 66.8 104 60.1 219 62.2 72 64.3 147 61.3
3 (high) 50 12.4 28 12.2 22 12.7 42 11.9 10 8.9 32 13.3
Individuals living in a neighbourhood with low employment rate§ 88 21.9 53 23.1 35 20.2 57 16.2 15 13.4 42 17.5
Individuals residing in a neighbourhood with high proportion of low income§ 100 24.9 56 24.5 44 25.4 74 21.0 13 11.6 61 25.4
High school or less education 58 14.4 35 15.3 23 13.3 53 15.1 16 14.3 37 15.4
Post-secondary education completed 261 64.9 153 66.8 108 62.4 250 71.0 77 68.8 173 72.1
Household density (median)ǁ 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.3
Children in household
0 231 57.5 144 62.9 87 50.3 N/A N/A N/A
1 170 42.3 84 36.7 86 49.7 247 70.2 79 70.5 168 70.0
2 N/A N/A N/A 79 22.4 25 22.3 54 22.5
3 N/A N/A N/A 24 6.8 7 6.3 17 7.1
Receipt of 2008 seasonal vaccine 156 38.8 83 36.2 73 42.2 108 30.7 25 22.3 83 34.6
Tested before June 11th, 2009 315 78.4 17 7.4 103 59.5 251 71.3 112 100.0 139 57.9
Healthcare provider 48 11.9 23 10.0 25 14.5 N/A N/A N/A
Resides in Toronto 121 30.1 84 36.7 37 21.4 78 22.2 24 21.4 54 22.5
Immigrant category
Non-Immigrant 251 62.4 148 64.6 103 59.5 316 89.8 106 94.6 210 87.5
Immigrant N/A N/A N/A 36 10.2 6 5.4 30 12.5
Immigrant, settled for 0–5 years 24 6.0 9 3.9 15 8.7 N/A N/A N/A
Immigrant, settled for >5 121 30.1 67 29.3 54 31.2 N/A N/A N/A
Hospitalized 64 15.9 0 0 64 37.0 79 22.4 0 0 79 32.9

*This was based on the question “People in Canada come from many different ethnic and racial backgrounds. I would like you to identify which ethnicity best describes you. You may choose more than one category.” The ethnic groupings were based on the categories similar to Statistics Canada definitions.

Underlying medical conditions for adults was having at least one of the following: diabetes, cancer, heart disease, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), immune disorder, liver disease, kidney or renal disease, splenectomy, sickle cell anemia, seizure disorder, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, or cerebral palsy. In children, underlying medical conditions was having either asthma or immune disorder.

Material Deprivation was based on employment to population ratio, average income and proportion without high school diploma. Social deprivation was based on proportion of persons living alone; proportion separated, divorced or widowed; and proportion of single-parent families. Quintiles of material and social deprivation were created based on dissemination areas in Ontario, with a score of 1 representing low deprivation and 5 indicating high deprivation. The material and social deprivation were combined to form a total deprivation score, which was categorized as high, middle or low deprivation.

§Low employment rate and High Proportion of Low Income are based on individuals residing in a dissemination area in Ontario. Individuals living in a neighbourhood in the bottom quintile of all dissemination areas for low employment/with high proportion of low income, based on our study population, were classified as being in the low employment rate/high proportion of low income categories.

ǁCalculated as the number of people in the household divided by the number of sleeping rooms in the household.

Healthcare provider is defined as a doctor, nurse or another healthcare professional.

N/A = Not applicable.

Navaranjan et al.

Navaranjan et al. BMC Public Health 2014 14:214   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-214

Open Data