Open Access Study protocol

All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence

Simon C Moore1*, Claire O’Brien1, Mohammed Fasihul Alam5, David Cohen5, Kerenza Hood3, Chao Huang3, Laurence Moore6, Simon Murphy2, Rebecca Playle1, Vaseekaran Sivarajasingam1, Irena Spasic4, Anne Williams2 and Jonathan Shepherd1

Author Affiliations

1 Violence & Society Research Group, School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XY, UK

2 DECIPHer, Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, 1-3 Museum Place, Cardiff CF10 3BD, UK

3 South East Wales Trials Unit, Institute of Translation, Innovation, Methodology and Engagement, Cardiff University, Neuadd Meirionnydd, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4YS, UK

4 School of Computer Science, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, 5 The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK

5 Faculty of Life, Science and Education, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL, UK

6 MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, 4 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G12 8RZ, UK

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BMC Public Health 2014, 14:21  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-21

Published: 10 January 2014



Alcohol-related violence in and in the vicinity of licensed premises continues to place a considerable burden on the United Kingdom’s (UK) health services. Robust interventions targeted at licensed premises are therefore required to reduce the costs of alcohol-related harm. Previous evaluations of interventions in licensed premises have a number of methodological limitations and none have been conducted in the UK. The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Safety Management in Licensed Environments intervention designed to reduce alcohol-related violence in licensed premises, delivered by Environmental Health Officers, under their statutory authority to intervene in cases of violence in the workplace.


A national randomised controlled trial, with licensed premises as the unit of allocation. Premises were identified from all 22 Local Authorities in Wales. Eligible premises were those with identifiable violent incidents on premises, using police recorded violence data. Premises were allocated to intervention or control by optimally balancing by Environmental Health Officer capacity in each Local Authority, number of violent incidents in the 12 months leading up to the start of the project and opening hours. The primary outcome measure is the difference in frequency of violence between intervention and control premises over a 12 month follow-up period, based on a recurrent event model. The trial incorporates an embedded process evaluation to assess intervention implementation, fidelity, reach and reception, and to interpret outcome effects, as well as investigate its economic impact.


The results of the trial will be applicable to all statutory authorities directly involved with managing violence in the night time economy and will provide the first formal test of Health and Safety policy in this environment. If successful, opportunities for replication and generalisation will be considered.

Trial registration

UKCRN 14077; ISRCTN78924818.

Alcohol; Violence; Licensed premises; Night time economy; Health and safety