Table 4

Meta-analyzed odds ratios for long birth intervals with neonatal and under-5 mortality as outcomes, stratified by mothers' completed fertility

Interval ≥60 months

Interval ≥72 months


Region (number of countries)

Low Fertility OR (95% CI)

High fertility OR (95% CI)

Low Fertility OR (95% CI)

High fertility OR (95% CI)


Outcome: Neonatal Mortality


Africa (n=28)

0.96 (0.65, 1.40)

0.70 (0.54, 0.92)

1.01 (0.62, 1.64)

0.78 (0.58, 1.05)

Asia (n=8)

1.15 (0.75, 1.77)

0.60 (0.44, 0.81)

0.91 (0.61, 1.37)

0.56 (0.40, 0.77)

Americas (n = 5)

1.26 (0.76, 2.09)

0.67 (0.41, 1.10)*

1.26 (0.67, 2.38)

0.79 (0.35, 1.79)*

Other (n = 6)

3.37 (0.94, 12.09)

1.13 (0.39, 3.30)

3.49 (0.67, 18.05)**

1.15 (0.33, 4.06)***

All (n=47)

1.14 (0.89, 1.45)

0.69 (0.57, 0.84)

1.04 (0.79, 1.36)

0.75 (0.60, 0.93)


Outcome: Under-5 Mortality


Africa (n=28)

0.84 (0.67, 1.05)

0.52 (0.44, 0.61)

0.85 (0.63, 1.14)

0.51 (0.42, 0.62)

Asia (n=8)

0.77 (0.61, 0.98)

0.49 (0.36, 0.68)

0.75 (0.53, 1.05)

0.38 (0.29, 0.49)

Americas (n = 5)

0.94 (0.57, 1.53)

0.59 (0.44, 0.78)

0.83 (0.46, 1.49)

0.62 (0.42, 0.91)*

Other (n = 6)

1.07 (0.57, 1.98)

0.78 (0.49, 1.25)

0.87 (0.24, 3.22)**

0.71 (0.33, 1.53)***

All (n=47)

0.83 (0.73, 0.96)

0.53 (0.47, 0.61)

0.82 (0.67, 1.01)

0.50 (0.43, 0.59)


*n=5, **n=3, ***n=2

Reference birth interval: 24-<60 months

Completed fertility: woman’s total fertility at the end of her reproductive period

Kozuki and Walker BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S6   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S6

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