Table 2

Summary of findings for the effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on predominant and partial breastfeeding rates.

Quality Assessment

Summary of Findings


Directness

No of events


No of studies

Design

Limitations

Consistency

Generalizability to population of interest

Generalizability to intervention of interest

Intervention

Control

Relative Risk (95% CI)

Comments


Rate of predominant breastfeeding at <1 month: Moderate outcome-specific quality


6

5 RCTs, 1 QE [18,52,61,72,76,85]

Variable follow up periods used in studies. Recall criteria variable across studies (past 24 hr, past week or previous month). mothers in the intervention group may have over-reported feeding practices

None of the studies suggest benefit. Insignificant heterogeneity

3 studies were conducted in developing countries

Pooled results for different types of interventions

33

59

0.66 [0.43, 1.01]

Fixed effects meta-analysis; insignificant heterogeneity.

Most studies were facility-based and all used individual counseling.


Rate of predominant breastfeeding at 1- 5 months: low outcome specific-quality


13

10 RCTs, 3 QE [11,12,18,20,36,42,46,52,58,61,72,76,85]

Variable follow up periods used in studies. Recall criteria variable across studies (past 24 hr, past week or previous month). mothers in the intervention group may have over-reported feeding practices

2 studies suggest benefit.

Significant heterogeneity

8 of 13 studies were conducted in developed countries

Pooled results for different types of interventions

1433

707

1.08 [0.55, 2.13]

Random effects meta-analysis due to significant heterogeneity.

Most studies are facility-based and used individual counseling.


Rate of partial breastfeeding at day 1: low outcome-specific quality


6

2 RCT, 4 QE [45,49,59,64,71,89]

Variable follow up periods used in studies. Recall criteria variable across studies (past 24 hr, past week or previous month). Mothers in the intervention group may have over-reported feeding practices.

1 of 6 studies suggests benefit. Significant heterogeneity

1 of 6 studies was conducted in a developing country

Pooled results for different types of interventions

101

99

1.21 [0.79, 1.87]

Random effects meta-analysis due to significant heterogeneity.

Most studies used individual counseling and most were facility-based.


Rate of partial breastfeeding at <1 month: moderate outcome-specific quality


11

8 RCTs, 3 QE [18,19,45,52,61,66,71,72,76,85,88]

Variable follow up periods used in studies. Recall criteria variable across studies (past 24 hr, past week or previous month). mothers in the intervention group may have over-reported feeding practices.

None of the studies suggest benefit. Insignificant heterogeneity

5 of 11 studies were conducted in developing countries

Pooled results for different types of interventions

112

151

0.88 [0.72, 1.08]

Fixed effects meta-analysis; insignificant heterogeneity

Most studies used individual counseling and most were facility-based.


Rate of partial breastfeeding at 1-5 months: moderate outcome-specific quality


20

11 RCTs, 9 QE [18-20,36,42,45,47,49,51,52,59,61,62,71,72,76,80,85,86,89]

Variable follow up periods used in studies. Recall criteria variable across studies (past 24 hr, past week or previous month). mothers in the intervention group may have over-reported feeding practices.

None of the studies suggest benefit. Significant heterogeneity

9 of 20 studies were conducted in developing countries

Pooled results for different types of interventions

524

578

0.87 [0.75, 1.02]

Random effects meta-analysis due to significant heterogeneity.

Most studies used individual counseling and most were facility-based.


Haroon et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13(Suppl 3):S20   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-S3-S20

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