Table 2

Results of ordinal logistic regression analyses showing odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for poorer quality of life on items of the WHOQOL-BREF and SF-12, according to participants’ (n=4,892) level of body dissatisfaction (BD) i-iii
BD1 BD2 BD3 BD4 BD5 BD6
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
WHOQOL-BREF items
Psychological Functioningiv
Positive Feelings 1.22 (0.98, 1.52) 1.49 (1.18, 1.87)** 1.86 (1.44, 2.41)*** 2.02 (1.59, 2.58)*** 3.23 (2.47, 4.21)*** 4.04 (3.12, 5.22)***
Spirituality 1.45 (1.18, 1.78)*** 1.70 (1.37, 2.11)*** 2.27 (1.78, 2.89)*** 2.54 (2.02, 3.20)*** 3.39 (2.63, 4.36)*** 4.98 (3.90, 6.36)***
Thinking 1.29 (1.04, 1.59)* 1.37 (1.10, 1.70)** 1.80 (1.40, 2.32)*** 2.00 (1.58, 2.53)*** 2.93 (2.26, 3.79)*** 4.21 (3.28, 5.41)***
Self-esteem 1.84 (1.47, 2.30)*** 2.60 (2.07, 3.27)*** 3.89 (3.01, 5.04)*** 5.00 (3.91, 6.38)*** 9.35 (7.15, 12.23)*** 24.58 (18.83, 32.07)***
Negative feelings 1.52 (1.22, 1.88)*** 1.72 (1.37, 2.15)*** 2.41 (1.87, 3.10)*** 2.83 (2.23, 3.59)*** 4.45 (3.43, 5.77)*** 8.47 (6.56, 10.94)***
Social Relationshipsv
Personal relationships 1.53 (1.24, 1.89)*** 1.64 (1.32, 2.04)*** 2.18 (1.70, 2.78)*** 2.81 (2.23, 3.54)*** 3.79 (2.93, 4.89)*** 4.33 (3.38, 5.55)***
Sexual activity 1.34 (1.10, 1.65)** 1.68 (1.36, 2.07)*** 1.91 (1.51, 2.42)*** 2.39 (1.91, 2.99)*** 3.22 (2.52, 4.11)*** 3.78 (2.98, 4.81)***
Social support 1.26 (1.02, 1.54)* 1.63 (1.32, 2.02)*** 1.94 (1.53, 2.47)*** 2.06 (1.64, 2.58)*** 2.63 (2.05, 3.38)*** 3.81 (2.99, 4.85)***
Overall quality of lifevi 1.26 (1.02, 1.57)* 1.38 (1.10, 1.72)** 1.69 (1.31, 2.18)*** 2.06 (1.62, 2.62)*** 2.55 (1.96, 3.31)*** 3.60 (2.78, 4.65)***
SF-12 items
Physical Healthvii
General health 1.25 (1.02, 1.53)* 1.37 (1.11, 1.69)** 1.52 (1.20, 1.93)** 1.90 (1.51, 2.38)*** 2.17 (1.70, 2.77)*** 3.75 (2.95, 4.77)***
Accomplish less 1.00 (0.78, 1.28) 1.01 (0.79, 1.31) 1.34 (1.01, 1.77)* 1.40 (1.07, 1.82)* 1.43 (1.07, 1.91)* 2.44 (1.86, 3.21)***
Limited in kind 1.00 (0.77, 1.31) 1.08 (0.82, 1.42) 1.00 (0.73, 1.36) 1.12 (0.84, 1.50) 1.43 (1.06, 1.95)* 1.73 (1.30, 2.32)***
Moderate activities 0.71 (0.53, 0.95)* 0.67 (0.49, 0.91)* 0.62 (0.44, 0.89)** 0.64 (0.46, 0.89)** 0.87 (0.62, 1.22) 1.03 (0.75, 1.41)
Climb several flights 0.87 (0.65, 1.16) 0.82 (0.61, 1.11) 0.91 (0.66, 1.27) 0.95 (0.70, 1.29) 1.30 (0.94, 1.78) 1.58 (1.17, 2.14)**
Pain-interfere 1.23 (1.00, 1.52) 1.20 (0.97, 1.49) 1.36 (1.07, 1.74)* 1.59 (1.27, 2.01)*** 1.51 (1.17, 1.95)** 2.12 (1.66, 2.70)***
Mental Healthviii
Accomplish less 1.23 (0.95, 1.60) 1.77 (1.36, 2.31)*** 2.64 (1.98, 3.54)*** 2.33 (1.77, 3.08)*** 4.10 (3.05, 5.52)*** 6.25 (4.67, 8.36)***
Not careful 1.21 (0.91, 1.60) 1.62 (1.21, 2.16)** 2.57 (1.88, 3.50)*** 2.29 (1.70, 3.08)*** 3.53 (2.58, 4.82)*** 5.09 (3.75, 6.89)***
Peaceful 1.53 (1.24, 1.87)*** 1.95 (1.58, 2.42)*** 2.62 (2.06, 3.32)*** 2.94 (2.35, 3.69)*** 4.34 (3.40, 5.56)*** 6.71 (5.27, 8.55)***
Energy 1.25 (1.02, 1.53)* 1.50 (1.22, 1.85)*** 2.09 (1.65, 2.64)*** 2.36 (1.89, 2.95)*** 3.98 (3.11, 5.08)*** 5.95 (4.68, 7.56)***
Blue/sad 1.57 (1.27, 1.94)*** 1.86 (1.49, 2.32)*** 2.51 (1.96, 3.22)*** 2.78 (2.20, 3.50)*** 4.55 (3.53, 5.87)*** 7.49 (5.85, 9.61)***
Social-time 1.12 (0.90, 1.39) 1.33 (1.06, 1.66)* 1.96 (1.53, 2.52)*** 1.71 (1.35, 2.16)*** 2.55 (1.98, 3.28)*** 4.163.25, 5.34)***

iFor all items, odds ratios greater than 1.0 indicate increased likelihood of greater quality of life impairment for the item concerned for participants reporting non-zero levels of body dissatisfaction (BD1 – BD6), relative to participants who reported no body dissatisfaction (BD0). BD1 = none/slight body dissatisfaction; BD2 = slight body dissatisfaction; BD3 = slight/moderate body dissatisfaction; BD4 = moderate body dissatisfaction; BD5 = moderate/marked body dissatisfaction; BD6 = marked body dissatisfaction.

iiOdds ratios were adjusted for the following covariates: age, BMI; marital status; employment status; level of education; parity; first language, country of birth and possession of private health insurance.

iii*** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05.

ivWHOQOL-BREF Psychological Functioning Subscale (QOL-P) items.

Positive Feelings: How much do you enjoy life? (Not at all; A little; A moderate amount; Very much; An extreme amount).

Spirituality: To what extent do you feel your life to be meaningful? (Not at all; A little; A moderate amount; Very much; An extreme amount).

Thinking: How well are you able to concentrate? (Not at all; A little; A moderate amount; Very much; Extremely).

Self-esteem: How satisfied are you with yourself? (Very dissatisfied; dissatisfied; Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied; Satisfied; Very satisfied).

Negative feelings: How often do you have negative feelings such as blue mood, despair, anxiety, depression? (Never; Seldom; Quite often; Very often; Always).

vWHOQOL-BREF Social Relationships Subscale (QOL-S) items.

Personal relationships: How satisfied are you with your personal relationships? (Very dissatisfied; dissatisfied; Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied; Satisfied; Very satisfied).

Sexual activity: How satisfied are you with your sex life? (Very dissatisfied; dissatisfied; Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied; Satisfied; Very satisfied).

Social support: How satisfied are you with the support you get from your friends? (Very dissatisfied; dissatisfied; Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied; Satisfied; Very satisfied).

viWHOQOL-BREF Overall quality of life item: How would you rate your quality of life? (Very poor; Poor; Neither poor nor good; Good; Very good).

viiSF-12 Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) items.

General health: In general, would you say your health is …? (Excellent; Very good; Good; Fair; Poor).

Accomplish less: During the past four weeks, have you accomplished less than you would like as a result of your physical health? (Yes, No).

Limited in kind: During the past four weeks, were you limited in the kind or work or other regular activities you do as a result of your physical health? (Yes, No).

Moderate activities: Does your health now limit you in moderate activities, such as moving a table, pushing a vacuum cleaner, bowling or playing golf? (Yes, limited a lot; Yes, limited a little; No, not limited at all).

Climb several flights: Does your health now limit you in climbing several flights of stairs? (Yes, limited a lot; Yes, limited a little; No, not limited at all).

Pain-interfere: During the past four weeks, how much did pain interfere with your normal work (including both work outside the home and housework)? (Not at all; A little bit; Moderately; Quite a bit; Extremely).

viiiSF-12 Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) items.

Accomplish less: During the past four weeks, have you accomplished less than you would like to as a result of any emotional problems, such as feeling depressed or anxious)? (Yes, No).

Not careful: During the past four weeks, did you not do work or other regular activities as carefully as usual as a result of any emotional problems (such as feeling depressed or anxious? (Yes, No).

Peaceful: How much of the time during the past four weeks have you felt calm and peaceful? (All of the time; Most of the time; A good bit of the time; Some of the time; A little of the time; None of the time).

Energy: How much of the time during the past four weeks did you have a lot of energy? (All of the time; Most of the time; A good bit of the time; Some of the time; A little of the time; None of the time).

Blue/sad: How much of the time during the past four weeks have you felt downhearted and blue? (All of the time; Most of the time; A good bit of the time; Some of the time; A little of the time; None of the time).

Social-time: During the past four weeks, how much of the time has your physical health or emotional problems interfered with your social activities (like visiting with friends, relatives, etc.)? (All of the time; Most of the time; Some of the time: A little of the time; None of the time).

Mond et al.

Mond et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:920   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-920

Open Data