Table 4

Prevalence and likelihood of poor health-related quality of life measures by lung function category and presence of respiratory symptoms among US adults aged 40–79 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010
%a (SE) Unadjusted PRa (95%CI) Adjusted PRb (95%CI) Adjusted PRc (95%CI) Adjusted PRd (95%CI)
Fair or poor health
Lung function category
 Normal lung function 14.3 (1.0) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Restrictive impairment 33.1 (3.4) 2.3 (1.82-2.95) 1.6 (1.24-1.95) 1.5 (1.20-1.90) 1.5 (1.21-1.93)
 Mild obstruction 11.1 (1.3) 0.8 (0.60-1.00) 1.0 (0.76-1.23) 1.0 (0.77-1.22) 1.0 (0.77-1.22)
 Moderate-severe obstruction 26.0 (2.3) 1.8 (1.53-2.16) 1.6 (1.39-1.91) 1.5 (1.25-1.77) 1.5 (1.25-1.78)
Chronic respiratory symptoms
 Frequent cough 28.2 (2.1) 1.9 (1.57-2.26) 1.4 (1.17-1.77) 1.1 (0.87-1.47)
  No frequent cough 15.0 (1.0) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Frequent phlegm 33.1 (2.4) 2.2 (1.87-2.63) 1.6 (1.27-1.94) 1.3 (1.00-1.74)
  No frequent phlegm 14.9 (1.0) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Past year wheeze 29.8 (2.5) 2.1 (1.79-2.41) 1.4 (1.21-1.73) 1.3 (1.03-1.56)
  No past year wheeze 14.4 (0.9) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Any 28.2 (1.8) 2.1 (1.87-2.44) 1.6 (1.38-1.80) 1.5 (1.30-1.71)
  None 13.2 (0.9) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Frequent physical distresse
Lung function category
 Normal lung function 10.2 (1.0) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Restrictive impairment 18.4 (2.3) 1.8 (1.28-2.54) 1.2 (0.81-1.78) 1.2 (0.77-1.74) 1.2 (0.78-1.76)
 Mild obstruction 10.2 (1.5) 1.0 (0.70-1.45) 1.1 (0.76-1.56) 1.1 (0.76-1.55) 1.1 (0.76-1.52)
 Moderate-severe obstruction 15.8 (1.9) 1.6 (1.20-2.01) 1.2 (0.94-1.62) 1.1 (0.83-1.47) 1.1 (0.79-1.41)
Chronic respiratory symptoms
 Frequent cough 21.7 (2.4) 2.2 (1.80-2.57) 1.6 (1.27-1.90) 1.1 (0.87-1.33)
  No frequent cough 10.1 (0.7) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Frequent phlegm 26.8 (3.7) 2.7 (2.12-3.40) 1.9 (1.43-2.50) 1.6 (1.15-2.18)
  No frequent phlegm 10.0 (0.7) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Past year wheeze 24.1 (2.3) 2.6 (2.07-3.18) 1.8 (1.43-2.22) 1.6 (1.21-2.08)
  No past year wheeze 9.4 (0.8) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Any 20.5 (1.9) 2.3 (1.98-2.73) 1.6 (1.40-1.91) 1.6 (1.36-1.91)
  None 8.8 (0.7) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Frequent mental distressf
Lung function category
 Normal lung function 11.3 (0.7) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Restrictive impairment 15.7 (1.9) 1.4 (1.09-1.75) 1.2 (0.97-1.52) 1.2 (0.93-1.44) 1.2 (0.95-1.47)
 Mild obstruction 9.6 (1.8) 0.8 (0.56-1.28) 1.0 (0.71-1.46) 1.0 (0.73-1.44) 1.0 (0.73-1.43)
 Moderate-severe obstruction 12.5 (2.0) 1.1 (0.79-1.56) 1.0 (0.72-1.40) 0.9 (0.61-1.26) 0.9 (0.60-1.23)
Chronic respiratory symptoms
 Frequent cough 22.1 (2.3) 2.1 (1.71-2.67) 1.7 (1.33-2.21) 1.4 (0.99-1.96)
  No frequent cough 10.3 (0.6) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Frequent phlegm 22.9 (2.7) 2.2 (1.70-2.73) 1.7 (1.32-2.27) 1.3 (0.91-1.84)
  No frequent phlegm 10.6 (0.6) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Past year wheeze 21.9 (2.1) 2.2 (1.76-2.71) 1.7 (1.30-2.12) 1.5 (1.16-1.94)
  No past year wheeze 10.0 (0.6) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Any 20.2 (1.7) 2.2 (1.78-2.68) 1.7 (1.40-2.18) 1.8 (1.40-2.22)
  None 9.3 (0.6) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
Frequent activity limitationg
Lung function category
 Normal lung function 4.6 (0.6) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Restrictive impairment 9.4 (1.7) 2.0 (1.24-3.36) 1.3 (0.75-2.11) 1.2 (0.73-2.09) 1.3 (0.74-2.11)
 Mild obstruction 4.7 (1.3) 1.0 (0.54-1.92) 1.1 (0.58-2.12) 1.1 (0.58-2.12) 1.1 (0.59-2.09)
 Moderate-severe obstruction 8.8 (1.6) 1.9 (1.18-3.08) 1.4 (0.82-2.39) 1.3 (0.76-2.21) 1.3 (0.75-2.13)
Chronic respiratory symptoms
 Frequent cough 11.2 (1.4) 2.4 (1.93-3.03) 1.5 (1.13-1.88) 1.2 (0.81-1.71)
  No frequent cough 4.7 (0.4) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Frequent phlegm 12.6 (1.4) 2.7 (2.06-3.45) 1.5 (1.14-2.10) 1.3 (0.83-1.93)
  No frequent phlegm 4.7 (0.5) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Past year wheeze 11.6 (1.4) 2.6 (1.97-3.49) 1.5 (1.07-2.10) 1.3 (0.92-1.94)
  No past year wheeze 4.4 (0.5) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --
 Any 10.1 (1.1) 2.5 (1.91-3.19) 1.4 (1.09-1.92) 1.4 (1.07-1.85)
  None 4.1 (0.4) 1.0 -- 1.0 -- 1.0 --

a Unadjusted.

b Prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) obtained from multivariable logistic regression models that included either lung function category or presence of any respiratory symptoms, as well as sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, number of non-respiratory chronic illnesses, smoking status, and BMI.

c Prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) obtained from multivariable logistic regression model that included both lung function category and presence of any respiratory symptoms simultaneously and was adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, number of non-respiratory chronic illnesses, smoking status, and BMI.

d Prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) obtained from multivariable logistic regression model that included both lung function category and each respiratory symptom simultaneously and was adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, number of non-respiratory chronic illnesses, smoking status, and BMI.

e Physical health not good ≥14 days during past 30 days.

f Mental health not good ≥14 days during past 30 days.

g Poor health limited usual activities ≥14 days during past 30 days.

Wheaton et al.

Wheaton et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:854   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-854

Open Data