Open Access Open Badges Research article

TB treatment outcomes among TB-HIV co-infections in Karnataka, India: how do these compare with non-HIV tuberculosis outcomes in the province?

Suresh Shastri1*, Balaji Naik2, Anita Shet34, Bharat Rewari5 and Ayesha De Costa4

Author Affiliations

1 Karnataka State AIDS Prevention Society, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

2 Revised National TB Control Program, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

3 St. Johns National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

4 Division of Global Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

5 National AIDS Control Program, New Delhi, India

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BMC Public Health 2013, 13:838  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-838

Published: 11 September 2013



India accounts for 23% of the global incidence of TB cases; it also has an estimated 2.3 million HIV infections. Of the 2 million TB incident cases, 5% occurred in HIV infected persons. The country has large national TB and HIV control programs. This paper describes characteristics of TB-HIV co-infection cases registered under the program in Karnataka province, India. Treatment outcomes for coinfected patients are compared with those for TB patients in the province.


Program reports from the National AIDS Control program and the National TB control program for Karnataka province (a high HIV prevalence state, population 61 million) were analysed. Data from patients registered in each program in 2010–2011 was studied.


Of the 6,480 adult co-infections, a third occurred in women; 78% of patients were initiated on ART. Among the cohort 73% had pulmonary TB, and 46% reported sputum positivity for acid fast bacilli. Treatment success among co-infected patients not on ART (54%) were significantly lower compared to those already on ART (80%); death and default rates were higher in the non-ART group. Treatment success proportions (75%) for the co-infected patients were similar to those for the 51,966 patients registered under the TB program. Death rates among co-infected patients (15%) were twice as high as for TB patients under the program, though default and failure rates were lower.


Co-infected patients already on ART demonstrated better TB outcomes in than those not on ART. Compared to those with TB only, co-infected patients had similar TB treatment success rates and lower rates of treatment default and failure. Integration of TB-HIV collaborative activities will strengthen our battle to control TB and HIV globally.

HIV TB co-infection India program epidemiology treatment outcomes