Table 4

Characteristics of 2139 slum-dwelling women, interviewed at 6 weeks postpartum, who did or did not report physical, emotional or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in the preceding year
Dependent variable Did not report IPV (%) Reported IPV (%) OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Socioeconomic quintile
  1 Poorest 343 (19) 90 (28) 1 ref 1 ref
  2 347 (19) 76 (24) 0.832 (0.59, 1.18) 0.934 (0.63, 1.37)
  3 376 (21) 53 (17) 0.543 (0.37, 0.80) 0.618 (0.40, 0.95)
  4 384 (21) 64 (17) 0.517 (0.35, 0.76) 0.639 (0.41, 1.00)
  5 Least poor 371 (20) 44 (14) 0.425 (0.28, 0.64) 0.536 (0.33, 0.88)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)
Family unit
  Joint 999 (55) 157 (50) 1 ref 1 ref
  Nuclear 819 (45) 160 (50) 1.239 (0.97, 1.59) 1.021 (0.76, 1.37)
  Total 1818 (100) 317 (100)
Religion
  Hindu 878 (48) 142 (45) 1 ref 1 ref
  Muslim 826 (45) 157 (49) 1.144 (0.85, 1.54) 1.700 (1.22, 2.37)
  Other 117 (6) 19 (6) 1.121 (0.64, 1.95) 1.600 (0.89, 2.86)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)
Woman’s age
  <20 y 117 (6) 23 (7) 1 ref 1 ref
  20-24 y 887 (49) 157 (49) 0.952 (0.58, 1.56) 1.070 (0.61, 1.86)
  25-29 y 575 (32) 98 (31) 0.920 (0.55, 1.54) 0.928 (0.50, 1.72)
  >29 y 242 (13) 40 (13) 0.896 (0.50, 1.60) 0.746 (0.36, 1.53)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)
Woman’s schooling
  No schooling 365 (20) 78 (25) 1 ref 1 ref
  <5 y (primary) 82 (4) 31 (10) 1.755 (1.07, 2.88) 1.563 (0.90, 2.71)
  5-9 y (secondary) 831 (46) 140 (44) 0.782 (0.57, 1.07) 0.923 (0.65, 1.32)
  10 or more y 543 (30) 69 (22) 0.625 (0.43, 0.90) 0.914 (0.59, 1.42)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)
Woman’s age at marriage
  <20 y 1094 (60) 216 (65) 1 ref 1 ref
  20-24 y 625 (34) 89 (28) 0.730 (0.56, 0.96) 0.858 (0.62, 1.18)
  >24 y 102 (6) 13 (4) 0.723 (0.39, 1.33) 0.824 (0.41, 1.68)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)
Woman’s employment
  Unemployed 1604 (88) 244 (77) 1 ref 1 ref
  Employed 217 (12) 74 (23) 2.320 (1.70, 3.17) 2.008 (1.42, 2.83)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)
Parity
  1 or 2 1175 (65) 184 (58) 1 ref 1 ref
  3 or more 646 (35) 134 (42) 1.263 (0.98, 1.62) 1.157 (0.82, 1.62)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)
Husband’s schooling
  No schooling 212 (12) 49 (16) 1 ref 1 ref
  <5 y (primary) 58 (3) 18 (6) 1.298 (0.69, 2.43) 1.375 (0.70, 2.68)
  5-9 y (secondary) 676 (38) 128 (41) 0.838 (0.58, 1.22) 1.067 (0.71, 1.60)
  10 or more y 833 (47) 114 (37) 0.619 (0.42, 0.91) 1.004 (0.64, 1.59)
  Total 1779 (100) 309 (100)
Husband’s employment
  Unemployed 18 (1) 7 (2) 1 ref 1 ref
  Employed 1803 (99) 311 (98) 0.570 (0.23, 1.43) 1.001 (0.37, 2.73)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)
Husband drinks alcohol
  No 1524 (84) 168 (53) 1 ref 1 ref
  Yes 297 (16) 149 (47) 4.884 (3.71, 6.43) 5.223 (3.88, 7.03)
  Total 1821 (100) 317 (100)
Infant sex
  Male 951 (52) 162 (51) 1 ref
  Female 861 (48) 153 (49) 1.078 (0.84, 1.38) 1.069 (0.82, 1.39)
  Total 1812 (100) 315 (100)
Previous miscarriage
  No 1620 (89) 261 (82)
  Yes 201 (11) 57 (18) 1.666 (1.20, 2.32) 1.759 (1.20, 2.58)
Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)

OR odds ratio. Ref reference category. ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression models with random effect for cluster. Multivariable models included covariates describing socioeconomic status, family unit, religion, woman’s age, schooling, age at marriage, employment, parity, husband’s schooling, employment and alcohol use.

Das et al.

Das et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:817   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-817

Open Data