Table 5

Risk factors for low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level in 1582 HIV subjects (normal = 1128, low HDL = 454) on ARV medication
Characteristics Normal Low HDL aOR 95.0 C.I. for OR p-value
Mean ± S.D. Mean ± S.D. Lower Upper
N (%) N (%)
Ethnicity
Malay 105 (23.3) 285 (25.4) 1.00
Indian 62 (13.7) 96 (8.6) 0.570 0.386 0.842 0.009
Chinese 284 (27.8) 739 (72.2) 1.753 1.187 2.589 0.005
ARV medication
Without PI 382 (86.2) 998 (90.1) 1.00
With PI 61 (13.8) 110 (9.9) 1.449 1.037 2.024 0.029
Anti-hyperglycaemic Agents
Not taking 57 (12.6) 91 (8.1) 1.00
Taking 397 (87.4) 1037 (91.9) 1.636 1.152 2.323 0.006
Viral Load (copies/mL)
<20 391 (86.1) 979 (86.8) 1.00
>20 63 (13.9) 149 (13.2) 0.945 0.688 1.297 0.724
CD4 (cells/mm3)
<200 25 (5.6) 90 (8.0) 1.00
≥200 419 (94.4) 1029 (92.0) 0.682 0.432 1.078 0.099
TG (mmol/l) 2.08 ± 1.37 3.23 ± 2.39 0.693 0.646 0.745 0.001
<5.17 95 (21.1) 551 (48.9) 1.00
≥5.17 356 (78.9) 576 (51.1) 0.279 0.216 0.360 0.001
LDL (mmol/l) 3.17 ± 1.01 2.64 ± 1.05 1.709 1.516 1.926 0.001
<3.36 349 (77.6) 673 (59.7) 1.00
≥3.36 101 (22.4) 454 (40.3) 2.331 1.813 2.997 0.001
TC (mmol/l)
<5.17 258 (56.8) 466 (41.3) 1.00
≥5.17 196 (43.2) 661 (58.7) 1.867 1.498 2.327 0.001
Hepatitis
No 383 (84.4) 1010 (89.5) 1.00
Yes 71 (15.6) 118 (10.5) 0.630 0.459 0.865 0.004

Adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CD4, HIV RNA Load, TC, TG, LDL, FPG, alcohol consumption, smoking, liver disease, medication with agents including ARV (PI), b-blocker, anti-hyperglycemic. aOR Adjusted odds ratio, ARV Antiretroviral.

Hejazi et al.

Hejazi et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:758   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-758

Open Data