Table 1

Selected characteristic of study participants overall and within each referral model
Characteristics Totals Model 1: Referral cards + police assisted MMT enrollment Model 2: Referral cards +2 months MMT in detoxification Model 3: Referral cards only P-value*
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Age (years)
 18 - 24 23 (10.2) 17 (15.2) 2 (3.2) 4 (7.7) 0.2237
 25 - 34 122 (54.0) 57 (50.9) 34 (54.8) 31 (59.6)
 35 - 44 63 (27.9) 31 (27.7) 20 (27.7) 12 (23.1)
 ≥ 45 18 (8.0) 7 (6.2) 6 (6.3) 5 (9.6)
Gender
 Male 217 (96.0) 109 (97.3) 58 (93.5) 50 (96.2) 0.4018
 Female 9 (4.0) 3 (2.7) 4 (6.5) 2 (3.8)
Ethnicity
 Han 138 (61.1) 66 (58.9) 37 (59.7) 35 (67.3) 0.5719
 Minority 88 (38.9) 46 (41.1) 25 (40.3) 17 (32.7)
Education level
 < Primary school 121 (52.5) 56 (50.0) 28 (45.2) 37 (71.1) 0.0475
 Junior high school 87 (38.5) 47 (42.0) 29 (46.8) 11 (21.2)
 ≥Senior high school 18 (8.0) 9 (8.0) 5 (8.0) 4 (7.7)
Marital status
 Married 95 (42.0) 43 (38.4) 28 (45.2) 24 (46.2) 0.7784
 Divorced or widowed 29 (12.8) 16 (14.3) 6 (9.7) 7 (13.5)
 Never married 102 (45.1) 53 (47.3) 28 (45.2) 21 (40.4)
HIV status
 Positive 68 (30.1) 8 (7.1) 33 (53.2) 27 (51.9) <0.0001
 Negative 158 (69.9) 104 (92.9) 29 (46.8) 25 (48.1)
History of heroin use (years)
 < 1 30 (13.3) 16 (14.3) 8 (12.9) 6 (11.5) 0.0542
 1-5 71 (31.4) 44 (39.3) 11 (17.7) 16 (30.8)
 6-10 57 (25.2) 28 (25.0) 17 (27.4) 12 (23.1)
 > 10 68 (30.1) 24 (21.4) 26 (41.9) 18 (34.6)
Prior participation in a needle-exchange program
 Yes 6 (2.7) 2 (1.8) 1 (1.6) 3 (5.8) 0.3682
 No 220 (97.3) 110 (98.2) 61 (98.4) 49 (94.2)
Prior participation in an MMT program
 Yes 34 (15.0) 15 (13.4) 17 (27.4) 2 (3.8) 0.0017
 No 192 (85.0) 97 (86.6) 45 (72.6) 50 (96.2)
Willingness to participate in an MMT program
 Yes 116 (51.3) 48 (42.9) 44 (71.0) 24 (46.2) 0.0015
 No 109 (48.2) 63 (56.3) 18 (29.0) 28 (53.8)
Distance from home to the nearest MMT clinic (km)
 < 5 67 (29.6) 36 (32.1) 15 (24.2) 12 (23.1) 0.3619
 5-10 41 (18.1) 23 (20.5) 11 (17.7) 7 (13.5)
 > 10 118 (52.2) 51 (45.5) 36 (58.1) 31 (59.6)
Overall 226 (100) 112 (49.6) 62 (27.4) 52 (23.0)

*P-values were calculated by χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests.

Yan et al.

Yan et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:747   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-747

Open Data