Table 1

Legal contextual environment for people living with HIV
Law, Policy, Regulation Geographic Location of Study Site
Can USA PR
CA HI IL MA NJ NY NC OH TX WA
Protective
Laws and regulations/policies that protect people living with HIV against discrimination Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Non-discrimination laws or regulations that specify protections for vulnerable subpopulations Yes

No

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) excludes drug users and sex workers.

Punitive
Laws, regulations or policies that present obstacles to access to prevention, treatment, care and support for vulnerable subpopulations Yes Yes, for drug users and sex workers.
HIV-specific restrictions on entry, stay or residence No No* No* No* No* No* No* No* No* No* No* No*
Laws that specifically criminalize HIV transmission or exposure No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No
Laws that criminalize same-sex sexual activities between consenting adults No No No No No No No No No No No No
Laws deeming commercial sex work to be illegal No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Laws that impose compulsory treatment for people who use drugs and/or provide for death penalty for drug offences No Data Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Laws that allow HIV-specific enhancements to sentencing for other crimes No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
Laws that criminalize exposure/transmission to other diseases** No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No Yes No
Laws requiring HIV disclosure Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Laws requiring HIV reporting Yes No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Number of HIV prosecutions since 1981 13 10 0 18 4 4 4 4 25 22 8 0
Sample Size 100 300 100 95 200 100 100 200 150 228 200 100

Note: CA = California, Can = Canada, HI = Hawai’i, IL = Illinois, MA = Massachusetts, NC = North Carolina, NJ = New Jersey, NY = New York, OH = Ohio, PR = Puerto Rico, TX = Texas, WA = Washington, UNK = unknown, *United States laws that restrict entry, stay or residence based on HIV-status were repealed in January, 2010; **including communicable or contagious disease statutes that criminalize sexually transmitted infection exposure [27].

Phillips et al.

Phillips et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:736   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-736

Open Data