Table 3

Effect (odds ratios with 95% CI) of legumes intake and selected factors on the risk of diabetes among women (n=99,574), India, 2005-2007
Predictors and confounders Model 1 OR [95% CI] Model 2 OR [95% CI] Model 3 OR [95% CI] Model 4 OR [95% CI] p value for trend
Legumes intake 0.409
 Daily 0.43[0.27–0.67] 0.53[0.33–0.85] 0.46[0.29–0.74] 0.55[0.34–0.88]
 Weekly 0.41[0.26–0.65] 0.56[0.35–0.89] 0.51[0.32–0.82] 0.56[0.35–0.90]
 Occasionally 0.57[0.36–0.92] 0.71[0.44–1.16] 0.71[0.43–1.15] 0.74[0.45–1.20]
 NeverR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
Consumption of other food items
Milk or curd 0.005
 Daily 1.09[0.87–1.37] 1.05[0.83–1.32]
 Weekly 0.99[0.76–1.29] 1.00[0.77–1.30]
 Occasionally 1.02[0.81–1.27] 1.01[0.81–1.27]
 NeverR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
Green leafy vegetables 0.742
 Daily 0.90[0.70–1.15] 0.88[0.69–1.14]
 Weekly 0.99[0.77–1.28] 1.00[0.77–1.29]
 Never/occasionallyR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
Fruits <0.0001
 Daily 0.45[0.32–0.62] 0.44[0.32–0.61]
 Weekly 0.37[0.27–0.50] 0.36[0.27–0.49]
 Occasionally 0.45[0.34–0.60] 0.46[0.34–0.61]
 NeverR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
Eggs 0.106
 Daily 1.06[0.75–1.50] 0.99[0.69–1.41]
 Weekly 0.97[0.76–1.23] 0.97[0.76–1.25]
 Occasionally 0.93[0.72–1.16] 0.96[0.75–1.22]
 NeverR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
Fish 0.225
 Daily 1.25[0.91–1.70] 1.15[0.84–1.58]
 Weekly 1.12[0.84–1.48] 1.05[0.79–1.40]
 Occasionally 0.83[0.63–1.08] 0.81[0.61–1.07]
 NeverR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
Chicken or meat 0.267
 Daily 1.18[0.64–2.17] 1.05[0.55–1.98]
 Weekly 1.02[0.76–1.38] 1.02[0.77–1.38]
 Occasionally 1.12[0.84–1.47] 1.11[0.84–1.48]
 NeverR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
Body mass index and lifestyle factors
Body mass index (kg/m2) <0.0001
≤18.5 (Underweight) 0.78[0.63–0.97] 0.79[0.63–0.98]
18.5–22.9 (Normal)R 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
23.0–24.9 (Overweight) 1.69[1.39–2.07] 1.67[1.37–2.04]
≥25.0 (Obese) 2.52[2.13–2.95] 2.50[2.13–2.94]
Current Tobacco smoking 0.703
 NoR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
 Yes 1.26[0.79–2.02] 1.24[0.77–2.00]
Alcohol consumption 0.015
 NeverR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
 Occasionally 0.85[0.40–1.80] 0.86[0.40–1.83]
 Once a week 0.46[0.14–1.53] 0.51[0.15–1.68]
 Almost everyday 0.53[0.10–2.84] 0.63[0.12–3.37]
Frequency of watching TV <0.0001
 Not at allR 1.00[Reference] 1.00[Reference]
 Less than once a week 0.97[0.74–1.21] 0.96[0.75–1.22]
 At least once a week 0.81[0.62–1.03] 0.80[0.62–1.03]
 Almost everyday 0.88[0.76–1.12] 0.91[0.75–1.11]
Background factors
Age <0.0001
 20–29R 1.00[Reference]
 30–39 3.29[2.64–4.09]
 40–49 7.82[6.32–9.68]
Education <0.0001
IlliterateR 1.00[Reference]
Literate, < middle school 1.38[1.14–1.68]
Middle school completed 1.49[1.24–1.79]
High school complete and above 0.99[0.73–1.34]
Religion 0.215
 HinduR 1.00[Reference]
 Muslim 1.23[1.01–1.51]
 Christian 1.58[1.17–2.14]
 Sikhs 0.97[0.61–1.56]
 Others 1.12[0.66–1.92]
Caste/tribe 0.125
 Scheduled casteR 1.00[Reference]
 Scheduled tribes 0.56[0.37–0.86]
 Other backward class 0.87[0.71–1.05]
 Others 0.97[0.79–1.18]
 Missing caste 0.85[0.58–1.25]
Wealth index <0.0001
 LowestR 1.00[Reference]
 Second 1.64[1.22–2.21]
 Middle 1.41[1.03–1.92]
 Fourth 1.87[1.36–2.57]
 Highest 1.93[1.35–2.74]
Place of residence <0.0001
 Urban 1.45[1.25–1.69]
 RuralR 1.00[Reference]
Geographic regions <0.0001
 NorthR 1.00[Reference]
 Northeast 1.08[0.67–1.73]
 Central 1.05[0.80–1.39]
 East 2.21[1.67–2.91]
 West 0.97[0.73–1.29]
 South 1.71[1.31–2.24]
Number of cases 100,380 100,224 95,831 95,706

For variable definition see Table 1; RReference category; Model 1 unadjusted; Model 2 adjusted for consumption of other food items and background characteristics; Model 3 adjusted for BMI and other lifestyle indicators and background characteristics; Model 4 adjusted for all.

Agrawal and Ebrahim

Agrawal and Ebrahim BMC Public Health 2013 13:706   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-706

Open Data