Table 3

Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between calcium (age-specific and albumin-corrected) and risk of gastrointestinal cancer
Oesophageal cancer Stomach cancer Colon cancer Rectal cancer Colorectal cancer
n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1 n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1 n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1 n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1 n HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)1
Calcium (SD: 0.10 mmol/L) 1.07 (0.96-1.18) 1.16 (1.04-1.30) 0.91 (0.85-0.97) 0.98 (0.91-1.06) 0.97 (0.94-1.01) 1.04 (0.99-1.08) 1.00 (0.95-1.05) 1.03 (0.97-1.09) 0.98 (0.95-1.01) 1.04 (1.01-1.07)
Quartiles of calcium
  < 2.32 71 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 187 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 575 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 314 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 989 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  2.32-2.38 76 0.91 (0.67-1.24) 0.97 (0.71-1.32) 218 0.96 (0.80-1.16) 1.03 (0.85-1.25) 622 0.92 (0.82-1.02) 0.96 (0.86-1.07) 379 1.13 (0.98-1.31) 1.14 (0.99-1.32) 1001 0.99 (0.91-1.08) 1.03 (0.94-1.12)
  2.38-2.45 76 0.86 (0.63-1.19) 0.96 (0.69-1.34) 171 0.78 (0.64-0.96) 0.88 (0.72-1.09) 665 0.94 (0.84-1.05) 1.02 (0.91-1.15) 415 1.10 (0.95-1.27) 1.12 (0.97-1.31) 1080 0.99 (0.91-1.08) 1.06 (0.97-1.16)
  ≥ 2.45 100 1.08 (0.81-1.44) 1.31 (0.96-1.80) 206 0.86 (0.72-1.04) 1.06 (0.86-1.29) 657 0.88 (0.79-0.98) 1.01 (0.90-1.14) 387 0.99 (0.86-1.13) 1.04 (0.89-1.21) 1044 0.92 (0.84-1.00) 1.02 (0.93-1.12)
P-value for trend 0.61 0.09 0.04 0.95 0.03 0.56 0.08 0.71 0.05 0.51
Calcium according to age-specific cut-offs
Low 2 0.77 (0.19-2.08) 0.64 (0.16-2.58) 9 1.34 (0.70-2.59) 1.09 (0.56-2.12) 17 0.81 (0.50-1.31) 0.69 (0.43-1.12) 13 1.08 (0.62-1.86) 1.06 (0.61-1.84) 30 0.91 (0.63-1.30) 0.82 (0.57-1.17)
Normal 311 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 758 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 2453 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1449 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 3902 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
High 10 1.73 (0.92-3.24) 1.95 (1.03-3.69) 15 1.04 (0.62-1.73) 1.19 (0.71-1.99) 49 1.12 (0.85-1.48) 1.25 (0.95-1.65) 33 1.27 (0.90-1.78) 1.30 (0.92-1.84) 82 1.18 (0.95-1.46) 1.27 (1.03-1.58)
Albumin-corrected calcium2
  (SD: 0.09 mmol/L) 1.14 (1.03-1.26) 1.17 (1.05-1.30) 0.98 (0.92-1.05) 1.00 (0.94-1.08) 1.03 (0.99-1.07) 1.05 (1.01-1.09) 1.01 (0.96-1.06) 1.03 (0.98-1.08) 1.02 (0.99-1.05) 1.04 (1.01-1.07)
Quartiles of albumin-corrected calcium2
  < 2.27 59 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 149 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 404 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 272 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 676 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
  2.27-2.33 76 0.88 (0.61-1.25) 0.86 (0.61-1.25) 198 0.96 (0.77-1.19) 0.96 (0.77-1.20) 640 1.12 (0.99-1.27) 1.13 (0.99-1.28) 385 1.03 (0.88-1.21) 1.04 (0.88-1.22) 1025 1.09 (0.98-1.20) 1.09 (0.99-1.21)
  2.33-2.39 78 1.03 (0.74-1.44) 1.04 (0.75-1.44) 186 0.89 (0.72-1.11) 0.91 (0.73-1.12) 668 1.09 (0.97-1.24) 1.10 (0.98-1.25) 398 1.05 (0.90-1.21) 1.06 (0.91-1.24) 1066 1.08 (0.98-1.19) 1.09 (0.99-1.20)
  ≥ 2.39 110 1.20 (0.88-1.63) 1.26 (0.92-1.72) 249 0.97 (0.79-1.18) 1.02 (0.83-1.24) 807 1.16 (1.03-1.30) 1.19 (1.06-1.34) 440 0.99 (0.86-1.15) 1.04 (0.90-1.21) 1247 1.09 (1.00-1.20) 1.13 (1.03-1.24)
P-value for trend 0.11 0.05 0.72 0.86 0.03 0.007 0.99 0.61 0.12 0.02

All models are adjusted for age at index measurement.

1Adjusted for sex, SES, albumin (continuous), and Charlson comorbidity index.

2Not adjusted for albumin.

Wulaningsih et al.

Wulaningsih et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:663   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-663

Open Data