Table 2

Factors associated with unmet needs for health care among homeless and vulnerably housed participants in Toronto, Ottawa and Vancouver, Canada, 2009
Bivariate models Multivariate model
OR (95% CI) p AOR (95% CI) p
Demographics, n (%)
 Homeless (Ref) 1.00 1.00
 Vulnerably housed 1.05 (0.83, 1.32) 0.71 1.09 (0.82, 1.45) 0.56
Age group, n (%)
 <30 years (Ref) 1.00 1.00
 30-39 years 1.04 (0.70, 1.54) 0.86 0.87 (0.54, 1.40) 0.56
 40–49 years 0.95 (0.66, 1.38) 0.79 0.74 (0.46, 1.18) 0.20
 ≥50 years 0.81 (0.54, 1.21) 0.31 0.63 (0.37, 1.05) 0.07
Gender, n (%)
 Male (Ref) 1.00 1.00
 Female 1.13 (0.88, 1.45) 0.34 0.84 (0.60, 1.19) 0.32
 Transgender 0.49 (0.16, 1.49) 0.21 0.24 (0.04, 1.05) 0.06
City, n (%)
 Vancouver (Ref) 1.00 1.00
 Toronto 0.76 (0.57, 1.01) 0.06 1.10 (0.77, 1.59) 0.60
 Ottawa 0.88 (0.66, 1.17) 0.37 0.90 (0.63, 1.27) 0.55
Born in Canada, n (%) 1.40 (1.00, 1.96) 0.05 0.89 (0.53, 1.49) 0.65
Racial/cultural group, n (%)
 White (Ref) 1.00 1.00
 Black/African-Canadian 0.69 (0.45, 1.07) 0.10 0.76 (0.41, 1.39) 0.37
 First Nations/Aboriginal 0.96 (0.70, 1.33) 0.82 0.80 (0.54, 1.17) 0.24
 Mixed ethnicity 1.35 (0.81, 2.25) 0.26 1.34 (0.68, 2.25) 0.49
 Other 0.31 (0.15, 0.62) <0.01 0.28 (0.11, 0.69) <0.01
Highest level of education, n (%)
 Some post-secondary education or higher (Ref) 1.00 1.00
 Completed high school or equivalent 0.80 (0.58, 1.11) 0.18 0.67 (0.46, 1.00) 0.05
 Some high school 0.96 (0.73, 1.26) 0.75 0.93 (0.67, 1.29) 0.66
Employed in past 12 months, n (%) 1.16 (0.91, 1.47) 0.23 1.40 (1.03, 1.91) 0.03
Lifetime duration of homelessness (years), mean (SD) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 0.07 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 0.59
VAS score (perceived state of health), mean (SD) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) <0.01 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.51
EQ_5D, mean (SD) 0.06 (0.03, 0.11) <0.01 0.21 (0.09, 0.53) <0.01
Been victim of a sexual assault over past 12 months, n (%) 1.95 (1.30, 2.93) <0.01 1.23 (0.73, 2.08) 0.44
Has a provincial health card number, n (%) 0.83 (0.58, 1.17) 0.29 0.68 (0.44, 1.04) 0.08
Has a primary care provider, n (%) 0.78 (0.61, 0.99) 0.04 0.63 (0.46, 0.85) <0.01
SF-12 PCS, mean (SD) 0.96 (0.95, 0.97) <0.01 0.98 (0.96, 0.99) <0.01
SF-12 MCS, mean (SD) 0.96 (0.95, 0.97) <0.01 0.97 (0.96, 0.98) <0.01
Number of chronic health conditions, n (%)
 0 (Ref) 1.00 1.00
 1 1.54 (0.95, 2.51) 0.08 1.26 (0.71, 2.22) 0.43
 2 2.00 (1.22, 3.29) <0.01 1.50 (0.83, 2.69) 0.18
 ≥ 3 3.66 (2.38, 5.64) <0.01 2.17 (1.24, 3.79) <0.01
Ever diagnosed with a mental health disorder, n (%) 1.65 (1.29, 2.09) <0.01 1.13 (0.84, 1.53) 0.41

Argintaru et al.

Argintaru et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:577   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-577

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